University of Tartu
Institute of Environmental Physics

Self-assessment report
1996–2000

Compiled by H. Tammet

Tartu, February 1, 2001


1. Institute of Environmental Physics

1.1. Formation of the institute

The Institute of Environmental Physics was established at the turn of the years of 1992/93 on the basis of former Department of Geophysics and Air Electricity Laboratory. Formally, the institute consists of three chairs:

Chair of Environmental Physics – prof. Hannes Tammet,
Chair of Meteorology - vacant,
Chair of Biogeophysics - vacant.
Only one chair is funded from the budget of the university. Until now, the funded chair is the Chair of Environmental Physics. Two additional chairs have been established under agreements between University of Tartu and Tartu Observatory, and they were funded from the budget of Tartu Observatory. Until this year the Chair of Meteorology was named The Chair of Dynamic Meteorology. When the institute was established, Prof. Rein Rõõm was elected as professor of dynamic meteorology and Prof. Tiit Nilson as professor of biogeophysics. Two joint chairs were created especially for graduate programs and they were not loaded with undergraduate teaching. After structural reorganizations the agreement between Tartu University and Tartu Observatory was cancelled and the two chairs are vacant today. Tartu Observatory employs Prof. Rõõm and Prof. Nilson and they continue active co-operation with Institute of Environmental Physics. Both they are nominated as visiting professors at Tartu University today.

More information about the institute can be found in the institute Internet page:

http://ael.physic.ut.ee.

1.2. Mission of Environmental Physics in Estonia and fields of study

Environmental protection is rapidly developing field of activity in Estonia today and new jobs are created every year. Expertise in modeling of dispersion of pollutants, contemporary meteorology, analytic instrumentation and environmental measuring methods can be achieved only in the basis of good education in physics and mathematics. The program of Environmental Physics in University of Tartu is created with aim to develop the physical methods of environmental studies and prepare environmental scientists and professionals on the basis of fundamental education in physics.

The field of environmental studies is wide and a small institute should carefully determine its priorities. Institute of Environmental Physics considers as well the needs of Estonia as well the existing expertise and available funding. The Chair of Environmental Physics determines its priorities as follows:

Development of electrical methods for analysis of the particulate and ionic components of the air.
Research of the physical structure of atmospheric aerosols.
Monitoring of the natural aerosol and particulate pollution in Estonia and Baltic region.
Development of the models of particulate pollution of the air in the Baltic region.
Study and modeling of the radiation climate in Estonia.
1.3. Structure of the institute

The institute has no formal subdivisions. An informal subdivision is Air Electricity Laboratory that is funded by a strategic research program independent of funding of the teaching staff of the institute. Head of the institute Prof. Tammet has two informal deputies: Doc. Eduard Tamm is responsible for administration of Air Electricity Laboratory and Doc. Hanno Ohvril is responsible for the administration of the educational work in the institute. Teaching staff of the institute consists of 4 full-time positions occupied by 5 permanently employed persons, two of them have half-time job. The positions are:

professor - 1,
docent - 2 (one of these positions will be reduced in February 2001),
lecturer - 0.5,
teaching assistant - 0.5.

Additionally, 4 highly qualified persons who are not permanently employed in then institute perform some amount of teaching according to temporary contracts.

Research staff of the institute consists of 7 persons:

senior scientists - 2,
scientist - 5,

Support personnel consists of 7.5 positions occupied by 8 persons:

engineers - 1.5,
office staff - 2,
technical staff - 4.

The distribution of the personnel according to age is as follows:


Age
Teaching
Scientists
Support
Total
Less than 30
1
0
0
1
30- 39
1
2
1
4
40- 49
 
2
3
5
50- 59
1
2
4
7
60 and more
2
1
 
3
Total
5
7
8
20

 
 
 

1.4. Administration of research in the institute

The research is carried out according to one strategic program and few grant projects. Program and project PI-s have full rights of disposal the funds, thus they are administrators of science. Head of the institute acts as a coordinator of projects. Additionally, head of the institute has a deputy who is managing the Air Electricity Laboratory.
 
 

1.5. Financial background

The funding of the Chair of Environmental Physics has developed as follows:
 

Funds (thousands EEK):
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Basic funds for teaching
571
591
590
950
885
Basic funds for research
521
645
800
979
969
Research grants and contracts
321
583
730
1135
1318
Support for Ph.D. studies
0
0
223
372
200
Sum
1413
1819
2343
3434
3372

1.6. Publications

List of 187 papers published by members of the institute 1996- 2000 is presented in Appendix 1. The authors are considered as members of the institute if they had position in the institute or were PhD students of the institute in the year when the paper was published. The number of publications according to classes is:

77 peer-reviewed papers in international journals and proceedings (41 papers in journals indexed in Current Contents),
34 peer-reviewed or unreviewed papers in domestic proceedings and unreviewed papers in international proceedings,
1 peer-reviewed books published in Estonia,
5 PhD theses published as books,
1 peer-reviewed books published abroad,
37 two-page peer-reviewed conference abstracts published in journals indexed in Current Contents,
32 different conference abstracts.
Altogether 118 papers or books and 69 conference abstracts.

1.7. Basis of experimental research

Main basis of the experimental research is Air Electricity Laboratory (see Appendix 2 and http://ael.physic.ut.ee).

Until 1997 the Air Electricity Laboratory was located in a separate building in a distance about one kilometer from the faculty building where another part of the institute is located. In 1997, the laboratory moved to the faculty building and the facilities of research and graduate studies were improved. The area of rooms occupied by Chair of Environmental Physics in the faculty building is 636 m2.

A lot of experimental research is based on co-operation with other research institutions. Important base for graduate studies is the Laboratory of Nuclear Spectroscopy (see http://www.fi.tartu.ee/labs/tsl.html). Laboratory of Nuclear Spectroscopy is located in the rooms of Institute of Physics and maintained by the staff of this institute, but equipped mostly by instruments belonging to the Institute of Environmental Physics.
 
 

2. Subjects and results of research

The institute carried out one strategic program during the period of 1996- 2000.
 
 

Title: Elaboration of physical methods for analysis of the atmospheric aerosol and application the methods in the study of environmental quality in Estonia

Code: Until 1996 FKKF001SO, 1997–2001 TFKKF0070

PI: prof. H. Tammet

Senior research staff: E. Tamm, H. Ohvril, J. Salm, and A. Mirme

Aims: Aerosol is controlling the radiation and electrical processes in the atmosphere. Specific optical and electrical measuring methods enable to analyze the aerosol. An aim of the research is to improve the electrical method of the aerosol analysis and to develop pertinent instrumentation. The formation of the atmospheric aerosol dependent on the location of the sources of air pollution and transfer of air masses is to be studied with an aim to assess the quality of environment in Estonia. Simultaneously, the radiation regime of the atmosphere is to be investigated as related to the parameters of the atmospheric aerosol. The effect of the air pollution on the local climate is to be estimated.

Results: The method of multichannel electric size spectrometry of atmospheric aerosols was essentially improved. The advantages of the method were proved on basis of experience of many measurement campaigns. A description of aerosol climate in Baltic Sea region was compiled. The regularities of bursts of nanometer particles were explained and the role of the ion-induced nucleation in the atmospheric air was estimated. The variation of atmospheric aerosol was proved to be main factor of variations of the transparency of atmosphere in Estonia only during the summer period. A new classification of air ions was presented on the basis of statistical analysis of long-term measurements of air ion mobilities. New methods of estimating the aerosol size distribution according to air ion measurements were proposed. The physical limits of ion mobility resolution were justified. A new method for estimation of extinction of Sun radiation in atmosphere was elaborated. It was shown that the Pinatubo volcano eruption follows in decrease of direct Sun radiation in Estonia up to 38%. The GLOBE program was introduced in Estonia.

Potential applications: The results can be used in elaboration of strategy and tactics of progress in Estonia and they should help to integrate Estonia into international system of environmental studies. Specific applications are monitoring of atmospheric background aerosol and particulate pollution of air, usage of atmospheric electric data in environmental monitoring, interpretation of climatological trends in Estonia and modernization of the environmental education.

Funds: 3914 thousand EEK during five years.

Issued degrees: 4 MS and 2 PhD.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

Subjects and results of research carried out according to grant projects are described in next section.
 
 

3. Research grants and contracts
 
 

3.1.

Title: Variability of atmospheric transparency in Estonia

Code: GFKKF446

PI: doc. H. Ohvril.

Senior research staff: H. Teral

Results: An engineer method to calculate Atmospheric Integral Transparency Coefficient (AITC) was developed and used to study variability of the AITC at Tiirikoja (Estonia) during last 40 years. The results were compared with the AITC from other locations – Tõravere (Estonia), Jokioinen and Sodankylä (Finland), Bergen (Norway), Almer?a (Spain). An obvious sensitivity of the AITC to great volcanic eruptions was evident. Although the linear trend of transparency for the entire 40-year period was decreasing, transparency at Tiirikoja before and after the Pinatubo’s minimum (1991–1993) reached the level of 1960s. Therefore, it is possible that the multiannual drop in atmospheric transparency has ceased for the present in this corner of Northern Europe and may even reveal an increasing trend.

Potential applications: Method for atmospheric transparency calculations, elaborated by H. Ohvril, may be used for transition from time series of measured direct solar beam to time series of atmospheric transparency. The last is more expressive term for physical and climatological conclusions.

Funds: 90 thousand EEK during two years 1996- 1997.

Issued degrees: 1 MS.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

3.2.
Title: A Study of the Temperature and Pressure Variation of Air Ion Mobilities

Code: GFKKF1226

PI: prof. H. Tammet

Results: The temperature and pressure variation of atmospheric ion mobilities is examined using the new model of cluster mobility. An innovation is the explanation of the transition from the elastic collisions specific for molecules to the inelastic collisions specific for macroscopic particles using the Einstein factor of the "melting" of the particle internal energy levels. Dipole polarization interaction is included into the model using the (? –4) potential. Algorithms are derived to calculate the particle mass size according to the mobility or diffusion coefficient, and to reduce the measured mobilities to the standard conditions. The temperature variation of the mobility occurs to be strongly suppressed in a narrow size interval between 1 and 2.5 nm. This peculiar effect is explained by the temperature variation of the transition size in the Einstein factor. The errors caused by the common usage of the Langevin rule proved to be important even in case of atmospheric ions of the highest mobility. Thus the old data about atmospheric ion mobilities are distorted and should be critically revised.

Potential applications: The air ion mobility distribution gives valuable information about air pollution. The measured mobilities should be transformed into temperature and pressure independent quantities to extract information of environmental importance.

Funds: 50 thousand EEK during one year 1996.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

3.3.
TitleStudy of the Formation of Atmospheric Aerosol Size Spectrum.

Code: GFKKF1879

PI: doc. E. Tamm

Senior research staff: A. Mirme, Ü. Kikas, M. Noppel

Results: A new method for following of the particulate air pollution transport was developed, which is based on the synchronized measurement of f(de) in two or more points. The method enables to assess particle transport velocity and the part of the long-transported particles in formation of the particle size spectrum at given location as well as to estimate the characteristic times of the particle size spectrum transformation. It was shown that the growth of particles by the aqueous-phase sulphate formation in droplets is going on, besides clouds and fogs, also in hazes. The methods for the estimation of the particle size spectrum from directly measured mobility spectrum were developed. Principally, it gives a tool for measurement of the size spectrum of smallest particles with diameters lower than 3 nm. Classical theory of new particle formation process – the nucleation, was re-examined. The new approximate expression for nucleation rate is proposed, applicable in case of cluster scavenging. The theory of nucleation of the mixture of vapors of sulphuric acid and water was revised.

Potential applications: Redesigned existing version of the unique electrical aerosol spectrometer EAS allows to check some new ideas in parallel-principle wide-range electrical aerosol spectrometry and it serves as a prototype for quite new version of EAS. The developed new experimental-observational method for following of the air pollution transport could serve as a new tool in environmental studies. The developed method for assessment of the small particle size spectrum from directly measured air ion mobility spectrum gives a tool for measurement the size spectrum of the smallest particles with diameters lower than 3 nm. The re-examined nucleation theory could be used for improvement of the weather and climate modeling.

Funds: 761 thousand EEK during 3 years 1996- 1998.

Issued degrees: 1 MS and 1 PhD.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

3.4.

Title: The effect of electric field on the deposition of radon daughters and air contaminants on the plant canopy

Code: GFKKF3050

PI: prof. H. Tammet

Senior research staff: E. Realo, J. Salm, U. Hõrrak

Results: Gamma-spectrometric measurements showed the content of 214Bi up to several kBq/kg in the needles of spruces below the 330 kV power line. The separated tips of needles were examined using specially designed alpha pulse chamber and the activity up to 14 kBq/kg was detected. It was shown that the high alpha activity of top needles of conifer trees happens not only close to the HV power lines but as well in the natural environment due to the effect of natural atmospheric electric field. New theoretical models were elaborated to describe the deposition of radon daughters and aerosol particles on thin structures of plan canopy in electric field. The results of modeling confirm and explain the role of atmospheric electricity in dry deposition of air pollutants on trees, at first the deposition of alpha active daughter elements of radon.

Potential applications: The results of theoretical and experimental study explain the evolution of electrically active air admixtures when coagulating with air ions and aerosol particles, and the plate out of air ions and polarized particles in the natural and artificial electric fields. The model can be used to justify some peculiarities of contamination damages of plants and the propagation of radon daughters in ecosystems.

Funds: 662 thousand EEK during 3 years 1997- 1999.

Issued degrees: 1 MS.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

3.5.

Title: Study of the electrical characteristics of the ultrafine fraction of atmospheric aerosols in urban and rural air

Code: GFKKF3226

PI: senior scientist J. Salm

Senior research staff: A. Mirme, U. Hõrrak, A. Luts, T. Parts, H. Tammet

Results: Systematical side-by-side measurements of air ion fraction concentrations and size spectrum of aerosol particles are performed in urban and rural air. Statistical and physical relationships between the measured quantities are found. Synchronized measurements were carried out at Hyytiälä, Finland, and at Tahkuse Observatory, Estonia. Bursts of intermediate ions and nanometer aerosol particles occurring in specific meteorological conditions, were recorded. A theoretical model of air ion evolution is created. Regular measurements of the size spectra of aerosol particles in a wide diameter range and air ion fraction concentrations were performed in the city of Tartu in 1998–2000 and the annual variation of urban aerosol was described and explained. An automated weather station with output onto Internet was designed and installed at the Department of Physics of the University of Tartu in 1999.

Potential applications: An essential application of this study will be a cheap estimation method of atmospheric particulate pollution on the basis of the measurements of the air conductivity and air ion fraction concentration. The estimates of the pollution are referred to the ultrafine fraction of aerosols that have been without needed attention so far. It is possible to apply the method at Tahkuse Observatory, Estonia. As many papers reveal, such a method would be useful for estimation of the long-term trends of global aerosol pollution and of clearing up the peculiarities of aerosol pollution in urban air.

Funds: 710 thousand EEK during 3 years 1998- 2000.

Issued degrees: 1 MS.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

3.6.

Title: Study of the generation of nanoparticles in the atmosphere and of the dynamics of their size spectrum

Code: GFKKF3903

PI: doc. E. Tamm

Senior research staff: M. Noppel, Ü. Kikas, A. Mirme, A. Luts, T. Parts

Results: Experimental system for the calibration of the EAS was upgraded in co-operation with another grant project funded by Estonian Innovation Foundation. A new method was developed for the determination of the area of representativeness of atmospheric aerosol spectrum measurements. Data about the correlation of the concentration bursts of intermediate air ions and nanoparticles could were collected and analyzed. Spatial dimensions of nanometer particle bursts were estimated. Aerosol size distribution dynamics during the burst episodes was analyzed. It was shown, that the aerosol spectrum measurement data obtained by ground-level measurements, are applicable for whole vertical column by calculating of the extinction of the sun radiation.

Potential applications: Reaching of these main goals enable the better understanding of the role of aerosol as a weather-controlling factor. So the results of the project can directly be used in improving the methods of weather forecast. The database, which will be created, will enable to estimate the level and trends of air pollution in Estonia.

Funds: 740 thousand EEK during 2 years 1999- 2000.

Issued degrees: 1 PhD.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

3.7

Title: Study of changeable components of the atmosphere and their variability by optical sounding

Code: GFKKF4140

PI: doc. H. Ohvril (shared with Dr. V. Russak, Tartu Observatory)

Senior research staff: A. Kallis, H. Teral

Results: Broadband solar radiation measurements are used to investigate the impact of water vapor and aerosols to solar radiation as well seasonal and annual variability of this impact. A system of measurement and data handling is built up. The research is in initial stage and main results will appear in following years.

Potential applications: Usage of optical methods in climatological monitoring.

Funds: Share of Dr. Ohvril's group was 50 thousand EEK during 1year 2000.

Publications: References are included into the list of publications, see appendix 1.
 
 

4. Results of applied research

Institute has not carried out of 100% applied research. However, most of the research projects listed above consist some component of applied research as described in previous sections. Three selected results of applied research are:

· The experimental system for calibration of the electrical aerosol spectrometer EAS was in cooperation of several projects substantially updated. Two new aerosol generators, a new electrostatic particle separator for nanoparticles were designed and built, and the aerosol electrometers were updated. The upgraded experimental system for the calibration of the EAS is applicable for calibration of all aerosol spectrometers and for extended laboratory experiments in aerosol physics and technology.

· The technique of aerosol measurements was essentially upgraded. The results of applied research prepared a ground for a large development project in field of electric aerosol spectrometry described in next section. Now the electric aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University has the widest measurement range according to particle size and the highest time resolution among all the existing aerosol spectrometers over the world. The updated EAS serves as a prototype for further progress in development of modern aerosol instrumentation.

· Method for atmospheric transparency calculations serves as a suitable tool for the analysis and the interpretation of data obtained by measurements at actinometric (radiometric) stations. Before the elaboration of the method, transition from values of direct solar beam to that of transparency was in Estonia made manually, using a graphic nomogram. Now the manual method is substituted with the analytical one, which allows easy computerization.
 
 

5. Results of development
Title: The electrical aerosol spectrometer

Code: IFKKF04298

PI: doc. E. Tamm

Senior research staff: A. Mirme

Results: On the basis of the developed in 1970ies and many times updated during the exploitation prototype, a new version of the parallel-principle wide-range electrical aerosol spectrometer (EAS) was designed, built and calibrated. Before, the specified mathematical model of such spectrometer was developed, as well as the computer program for optimization of the construction and regime parameters of the EAS. The technology of the production of the new mechanical parts of the spectrometer was developed, all the electronic circuits were redesigned on the basis of Western parts and chips. Complex method of theoretical-experimental calibration of the aerosol spectrometers was updated, the experimental system, required for calibration was essentially updated in cooperation with the funds of an Estonian Scientific Foundation grant. As a result, a ready for commercialization version of EAS is created. The measurement range according to particle diameter (3 nm – 10 ?m) covers almost all the interval of particle sizes interesting in environmental research, thereby the whole range is measured by the same method and the same equivalent diameter is used. No other aerosol spectrometer is capable for this. Due to parallel measuring principle, EAS is able to measure the particle spectrum by quickly changing or (and) fluctuating particle concentration. EAS is quite reliable – it can work continuously during some months without any servicing. Therefore, EAS is very suitable device for environmental monitoring. It is very perspective for study of quickly changing particle spectra in diesel exhaust, fire gases etc.

Potential applications: EAS should have a good chances for competition on the world market of aerosol measuring instruments, as described above. Two devices are produced up to now by a small stock company Airel Ltd., one of them is sold to University of Kuopio (Finland).

Funds: 1950 thousand EEK during 2 years 1999- 2000.

6. Scientific meetings

The institute has arranged or participated in arrangement of 4 international and 5 national scientific-educational and scientific meetings held in Estonia during 3 last years:
 
Meeting
Place in Estonia
Time
International or National
GLOBE workshop
Värska
June 1998
national
GLOBE teachers seminar
Tartu
December 1998
national
GLOBE coordinator’s seminar
Tallinn
June 1999
international
4th workshop on Physical processes in natural waters
Roosta
September 1999
international
GLOBE teachers seminar
Tartu
December 1999
national
Seminar of Helsinki and Tartu Universities in Aerosol Physics
Tartu
January 2000
international
Environmental conference of schools
Rõngu
April 2000
national
GLOBE workshop
Kääriku
August 2000
national
Estonian-Norwegian workshop on environmental education
Sagadi
September 2000
international

 

7. Domestic co-operation

Main partner institutions of domestic co-operation were: Tartu Observatory, Institute of Physics (Laboratory of Nuclear Spectroscopy), Estonian Marine Institute, Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, and Pärnu Institute of Health Resort Treatment and Medical Rehabilitation.

Joint Chairs of Biogeophysics (Prof. T. Nilson) and Dynamic Meteorology (Prof. R. Rõõm) were funded and maintained by Tartu Observatory, located in Tõravere in distance of 25 km from the City of Tartu. Tartu Observatory participated and continues to participate actively in the degree program. Groups of the Dynamic Meteorology and Biogeophysics are at the leading edge of the environmental science and participate in the large international research projects. The Group of Dynamic Meteorology of Tartu Observatory is the only group in Estonia specializing in theoretical and numerical meteorology, which performs the backbone of modern atmospheric science. Another essential item of co-operation is analysis and use of Sun radiation measurements performed by Tartu Observatory, including UV, visible and IR radiation.

Institute of Physics is the host organization for the Laboratory of Nuclear Spectroscopy supervised by Doc. Enn Realo. The radiation protection service is in the stage of creation in Estonia today and qualified experts in this field are urgently needed. Active cooperation with the Laboratory of Nuclear Spectroscopy enables to educate some students in this field of knowledge. During the years 1994–1997, in cooperation of the Institute of Physics of the Estonian Academy of Sciences an attempt was made to develop the gamma-induced X-ray fluorescent analysis (GIXE) method for the investigation of the chemical composition of the aerosol particles. Preliminary results are applicable only for long-time (48 h) samples of urban air. Enhancement of the sensitivity of the method requires quite high volume of financing for strong g -sources and sensitive receptors of g -radiation.

Doc. Hanno Ohvril teaches the marine physics in the university. However, University of Tartu is not able to provide himself experimental facilities and full-scale education for graduate studies in the marine physics. Thus the graduate program in marine physics is essentially based on cooperation with the Estonian Marine Institute located in Tallinn.

Co-operation with Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute helped us to use the meteorological and actinometric data acquired by partner.

Scientific collaboration with Pärnu Institute of Health Resort Treatment and Medical Rehabilitation for investigation the health effects of UV radiation and the impact of atmospheric aerosol on surface UV exposures.

8. International co-operation

Institute of Environmental Physics has extensive co-operation with our foreign partners. Most essential partners are:

Group of environmental science of Kuopio, Finland (University and National Public Health Institute).

Gerhard-Mercator University of Duisburg, Germany.

Aerosol Research Laboratory of the University of Helsinki, Finland.

Finnish Meteorological Institute.

Norwegian Institute of Air Research (NILU).

Group of atmospheric electricity at the University of Uppsala, Sweden.

University of Granada.

The results of co-operation are visible when learning the list of publications presented in Appendix 1, where many of listed papers are written together with co-authors from partner institutions.
 
 

Three projects have been covered with grants or contracts funded by partners:
 
 

1.

Title: Electrical aerosol analysis of smoke-aerosols in the first stage of a fire.

PI: Docent E. Tamm.

Period: 1997–1999.

Partner: Department of Communication Engineering of the Gerhard-Mercator University of Duisburg.

Funding: 502 thousand EEK

Results: The development of the size spectrum of the smoke particles of all the European standard fires from the ignition moment up to fully developed flame stage was determined with very high time resolution of 4 sec. The non-fire and pre-fire situations were analyzed as well for distinguish them from fire situations.
 
 

2.

Title: Study of Urban Ambient Aerosol Time Variations.

PI: Senior scientist A. Mirme.

Period: 1997–1998.

Partner: National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.

Funding: 80 thousand EEK.

Results: Processing the ambient aerosol data monitored with EAS during winter 1996/97 in downtown of Helsinki in the framework of previous cooperation with National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland in EU project ULTRA1
 
 

3.

Title: Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Urban Air, ULTRA2., (subcontract of EU project ENV4-CT97-0568).

PI: A. Mirme.

Period: 1998–2000.

Partner: National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.

Funding: 263 thousand EEK.

Results: The aerosol total concentrations derived from EAS data have been in good agreement with the readings given by the instruments measuring aerosol integral data. Thanks to detailed aerosol data by EAS the adverse effect of ultrafine aerosol (particles below 30nm size) and no effect of PM2.5 on human health was noticed in 1996/97 season while in 1998/99 PM2.5 seemed to have an effect and ultrafine aerosol did not.

Application: Working out the strategies and developing the instrumentation for ambient aerosol monitoring.
 
 

In summer 1997 a complex research campaign of the marine aerosols over the Finnish Gulf was performed together with the Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry of the University of Kuopio. The aerosol and meteorological instruments were installed on the board of the research vessel "Aranda", cruising over the Finnish Gulf. Correlations of the particle size spectra with meteorological parameters were determined and the characteristics of the particulate air pollution from main pollution sources near the Gulf were investigated.
 
 

Co-operation of docent H. Ohvril with University of Granada, Spain, was covered by a TEMPUS project. Funding of visits in frames of the projects was about 100 thousand EEK.
 
 

Most of international co-operation was grounded in informal relations between scientists and not covered by research grants. In frames of this kind of co-operation, the foreign partners or funds often covered the travel costs of our scientists visiting the partner institutes or international conferences. Number of foreign-paid visits to partners during five years is estimated about 50 and total amount of travel support is estimated about one million EEK.
 
 
 
 
 
 

9. Issued degrees

9.1. Defenses of MS theses 1996- 2000
 
No Student Born Date Inst. Thesis Supervisor
1 Vladimir Babin 1972 16.01.1996 FKKF Research for economic techniques of meteorological monitoring Hannes Tammet
2 Anu Ülejõe 1970 22.03.1996 FKKF Non-hydrostatic pressure-coordinate models of atmospheric dynamics. Acoustic noise filtering problem Rein Rõõm
3 Laur Mägi 1972 26.06.1996 FKKF Water, Salt and Nutrient Budget of the Gulf of Riga Urmas Lips & Hanno Ohvril
4 Oleg Okulov 1973 26.06.1996 FKKF Pinatubo eruption effects on atmospheric transparency in Estonia (Tiirikoja) and Spain (Alméria) Hanno Ohvril
5 Marko Vana 1972 26.06.1996 FKKF About the experimental study of the particulate pollution propagation Eduard Tamm
6 Aarne Männik 1972 16.06.1997 FKKF Water transport and phase transitions in numerical meso-models of the atmosphere Rein Rõõm
7 Merle Lust 1974 14.06.1999 FKKF Estimation of the radiation dose caused by the production of energy Enn Realo
8 Matti Mõttus 1976 20.06.2000 FKKF Statistical treatment of penetration of direct solar radiation inside willow coppice Juhan Ross & Tiit Nilson

9.2. Defenses of PhD theses 1997- 2000
 
No Student Born Date Inst. Thesis Supervisor
1 Tiit Kutser 1964 18.06.1997 FKKF Estimation of water quality in turbid inland and coastal waters by passive optical remote sensing Helgi Arst & Hanno Ohvril
2 Ülle Kikas 1949 22.06.1998 FKKF Atmospheric Aerosol in the Baltic Region Hannes Tammet
3 Tarmo Kõuts 1963 28.06.1999 FKKF Processes of deep water renewal and mixing in the Baltic Sea Jüri Elken & Hanno Ohvril
4 Anu Reinart 1961 28.06.2000 FKKF Underwater light field characteristics in different types of Estonian and Finnish lakes Hanno Ohvril & Helgi Arst
5 Marko Kaasik 1966 28.06.2000 FKKF Parameterisation of atmospheric boundary layer in the numerical model of air pollution transport Rein Rõõm

 
 
 

10. Graduate students

MS students
 
No
Thesis Student
Born
Supervisor
1
Annual water level oscillations at the Baltic Sea. Anu Õmblus
1975
T. Kõuts & H.Ohvril
2
Fractal properties of satellite images Janno Tuulik
1975
P. Post
3.
Statistical analysis of aerosol characteristics, meteorological parameters and concentrations of SO2 and NO2 according to measurements in Tartu city Marko Lehes
1975
J. Salm &
A. Mirme
4
: Short-term variability of atmospheric transparency at Tiirikoja. Mati Tee
1966
H. Ohvril
5
Objective classification of large-scale atmospheric circulation for the Baltic Sea area Valdur Truija
1978
P. Post

 

PhD Students
 
No
Thesis Student
Born
Supervisor
1
Development of methods for air quality monitoring in Estonia Veljo Kimmel
1965
H. Tammet
2
Distribution and transformation of nutrients in coastal waters of Estonia Laur Mägi
1972
U. Lips &
H. Ohvril
3
Temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric transparency. Oleg Okulov
1973
H. Ohvril
4
Investigation of the transport of the particulate air pollution and of the development of the size spectrum of aerosol particles in moving air masses. Marko Vana
1972
E. Tamm
5
Near-bottom hydrodynamics in sea Janek Laanearu
1972
U. Lips &
H. Ohvril
6
Numerical modeling of hydrodynamic processes controlling the circulation and water exchange in Livonian Gulf Urmas Raudsepp
1964
J. Elken &

R. Rõõm

7
Non-hydrostatic weather forecast model in Eulerian presentation of HIRLAM Aarne Männik
1972
R. Rõõm
8
Observational study of fields of atmospheric ozone in arctic region Rigel Kivi
1961
K. Eerme &

E. Kyrö

9
Distribution of radionuclides in environment Merle Lust
1974
E. Realo
10
Optimization of doses and risk in radiotherapy Eduard Gerðkevitð
1973
E. Realo
11
Penetration of solar radiation in plant canopies Matti Mõttus
1976
J. Ross &
H. Tammet

 

11. Academic CV-s of senior research staff

CV-s of senior research staff are given in appendixes 3 - 7.

12. Proficiency of teaching and research staff

12.1. Formal qualification of academic staff of the institute.
 
Name
Born
Degree Position
No of refereed papers during 5 last years*
Hannes Tammet
1937
DSc Professor
25
Hanno Ohvril
1946
Cand.Sc. 1977 Docent
5
Eduard Tamm
1935
Cand.Sc. 1975 Docent
24
Piia Post
1963
PhD 1993 Lecturer (1/2)
4
Aadu Mirme
1945
PhD 1994 Senior scientist
27
Jaan Salm
1937
Cand.Sc. 1970 Senior scientist
18
Urmas Hõrrak
1961
MS 1994 Scientist
11
Ülle Kikas
1949
PhD 1998 Scientist
10
Aare Luts
1962
PhD 1995 Scientist
2
Madis Noppel
1951
Cand.Sc. 1990 Scientist
8
Tiia-Ene Parts
1943
Cand.Sc. 1980 Scientist
7
Marko Vana
1972
MS 1996 Teaching assistant (1/2)
7

*) including refereed proceeding papers and 2-page conference abstracts published in CC-reported journals.

12.2. Previous evaluations

In 1990, first unofficial international evaluation was performed when the Naval Research Office, USA, organized the evaluation of the environmental research groups in Eastern Europe. Air Electricity Laboratory (included today as the core into the Institute of Environmental Physics) was inspected by Liaison Scientist of NRO Hans Dolezalek. The report is published in the NRO journal "European Scientific Notes Information Bulletin", 1991, N3, pp. 3–9. The General Evaluation is detailed and positive. A citation: "The Laboratory is among the leading ones in its scientific domain; in some regards, it is certainly the leading one."

In 1992, second international evaluation has been accomplished by Swedish scientists. The conclusions for the members of the institute were:

Prof. H. Tammet – very good,

Prof. T. Nilson – very good to excellent,

Prof. R. Rõõm – good to very good,

Doc. H. Ohvril – good,

Doc. E. Realo – good,

Doc. U. Veismann and Doc. K. Eerme – very good.

In 1994, a 4-page self-evaluation report (in Estonian) was compiled according to a questionnaire and presented to the university administration. Institute has received no reply.

In 1996, a 26-page self-evaluation report (in Estonian) was compiled according to a questionnaire and presented to the university administration. Institute has received no reply.

In 1998, a 25-page self-evaluation report (in English) about graduate program in environmental physics was compiled according to a questionnaire and presented to the university administration. Institute has received no reply.
 
 


Appendix 1

Publications of members and PhD students of
Institute of Environmental Physics, 1996- 2000


Aalto, P., Hämeri, K., Becker, E., Weber, R., Salm, J., Mäkelä, J.M., Hoell, C., O'Dowd, C.D., Karlsson, H., Hansson, H.-C., Väkevä, M., Koponen, I., Buzorius, G. and Kulmala, M. (2000) Aerosol number and size distribution measurements during BIOFOR. Report Series in Aerosol Science 33–41.

Adriani, A., … Kivi, R., Kyro, E. and … et, al. (2000) The Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere in the Winter and Spring of 1999/2000. The European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit, Cambridge.

Alados-Arboledas, L., Olmo, F.J., Ohvril, H.A., Teral, H., Arak, M. and Teral, K. (1997) Evolution of solar radiation effects of Mount Pinatubo at ground level. Tellus 49B, 190–198.

Arst, H., Erm, A., Kallaste, K., Mäekivi, S., Reinart, A., Herlevi, A., Nõges, P. and Nõges, T. (1999) Investigation of Estonian and Finnish lakes by optical measurements in 1992-97. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol. 48, 5–24.

Arst, H., Erm, A., Kutser, T. and Reinart, A. (1999) Optical remote sensing and contact measurements in Estonian and Finnish lakes in 1992-98. EMI Report Series 105–114.

Arst, H., Mäekivi, S., Kutser, T., Reinart, A., Blanco-Sequeiros, A., Virta, J. and Nõges, P. (1997) Optical investigations of Estonian and Finnish lakes. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 2, 187–198.

Arst, H., Reinart, A., Erm, A. and Hussainov, M. (2000) Influence of the depth-dependence of the PAR region diffuse attenuation coefficient on the computation results of the downward irradiance in different type of water bodies. Geophysica 36, 132–145.

Baldi, M., Sbano, L., Dalu G., A. and Kivi, R. (1998) A lee wave model for high latitude atmospheric flow. Italian Physical Society Conf. Proc., 62, pp. 3–18.

Belova, E., Kirkwood, S., Tuomi, T. and Tammet, H. (1999) Interaction between the global atmospheric circuit and ionosphere-magnetosphere phenomena. IUGG 99 Abstracts, IUGG, Birmingham, B, pp. B92.

Belova, E., Kirkwood, S., Nielsen, E. and Tammet, H. The ground-level atmospheric current response to a magnetic substorm. In Proc. 5th Internat. Conf. on Substorms, St. Petersburg, pp. 473–476.

Dörnbrack, A., Leutbecher, M., Kivi, R. and Kyrö, E. (1999) Mountain wave induced record low stratospheric temperatures above Northern Scandinavia. Tellus 51A, 951–963.

Eerme, K. (1999) Osoonikiht (in Estonian). rmt. Kalender 2000, Olion, Tallinn, lk. 101–111.

Eerme, K. (1999) Kas ja miks olid ilmad kuldsetel kuuekümnendatel praegustest ilusamad (in Estonian). rmt. Tartu Tähetorni kalender 2000. aastaks, toimet. Jõeveer, M., Eesti Vabaharidusliit. Tõravere Kirjastus, lk. 79–91.

Erm, A., Arst, H., Hussainov, M., Kutser, T. and Reinart, A. (1999) Optical measurements in Lake Ülemiste. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol. 48, 63–74.

Fischer, M., Jennings, G., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Microphysical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol depending on air mass origin. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S187–S188.

Grünsteudel, H., Meyer-Klaucke, W., Trautwein A., X., Winkler, H., Leupold, O., Metge, J.,. Gerdau, E., Rüter H., D., Baron A. Q., R., Chumakov A., I., Grünsteudel H., F., Rüffer, R., Haas, M., Realo, E., Mandon, D., Weiss, R. and Toftlund, H. (1997) Mössbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. In Bioinorganic Chemistry: Transition Metals in Biology and their Coordination Chemistry: DFG, Wiley-VCH, pp. 760–767.

Haas, M., Realo, E., Winkler, H., Meyer-Klaucke, W., Trautwein A., X., Leupold, O. and Rüter H., D. (1997) Nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron radiation by randomly oriented iron complexes which exhibit nuclear Zeeman interaction. Phys. Rev. B56, 1482–1488.

Hämeri, K., Mäkelä, J.M., Aalto, P.P., Pirjola, L., Väkevä, M., Koponen, I.K., Buzorius, G., Keronen, P., Rannik, Ü., Vesala, T., Laakso, L., Seidl, W., Forkel, R., Hoffman, T., Spanke, J., Nilsson, E.D., Jansson, R., Hansson, H.-C., O'Dowd, C., Becker, E., Paatero, J., Teinilä, K., Hillamo, R., Viisanen, Y., Bigg, K., Swietlicki, E., Laaksonen, A., Salm, J. and Kulmala, M. (2000) Biogenic aerosol formation in the Boreal Forest. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S598–S599.

Heikinheimo, M., Ohvril, H., Venälainen, A., Skartveit, A., Olseth, J.A., Laine, V., Teral, H., Arak, M. and Teral, K. (1996) Recent variations of atmospheric turbidity at selected sites in Finland, Estonia and Norway as revealed by surface solar radiation measurements. Geophysica 32, 195–216.

Herta, C., Winkler, H., Benda, R., Shvyd'ko, Yu., Trautwein A., X., Haas, M. and Realo, E. (1999) Temperature dependent quadrupole splitting of oxy and deoxy myoglobin studied by nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron radiation. Program and Abstracts of the ICAME 99, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Aug. 29 - Sept. 03, T2, pp. 12–12.

Herta, C., Winkler, H., Matzanke, B.F., Leupold, O., Trautwein A., X., Haas, M. and Realo, E. (1999) Distribution of hyperfine fields in the iron mineral core of bacterioferritin from streptomyces olivaceus as detected by nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron radiation. Program and Abstracts of the ICAME 99, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Aug. 29 - Sept. 03, T2, pp. 35–35.

Hõrrak, U., Iher, H. and Salm, J. (1998) Keskkonnaseire Tahkusel. Environmental Monitoring at Tahkuse (in Estonian). rmt. Eesti Keskkonnaseire 1996 Estonian Environmental Monitoring, Eesti Vabariigi Keskkonnaministeeriumi Info- ja Tehnokeskus, Tallinn, lk. 30–33.

Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric Research 46, 233–242.

Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Study of covariations of aerosol and air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse, Estonia. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S849–S850.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Iher, H. (1996) Õhuseire Tahkusel (in Estonian) (in Estonian). rmt. Keskkonnaseire 1995, EV Keskkonnaministeerium, Tallinn, lk. 25–28.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1996) Derivation of the size spectrum of aerosol particles from a mobility spectrum. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by M. Kulmala and P.E., Wagner, Pergamon, pp. 562–565.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Method of calculation of the size spectrum of aerosol particles according to their mobility spectrum. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S223–S224.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Outbursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air. In Proceedings 10th Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Osaka, pp. 76–79.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Statistical characterization of air ion spectra at Tahkuse Observatory 1993-1994. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Atmos. Electr., Osaka, pp. 72–75.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1998) Bursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 103, 13909–13915.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (2000) Statistical characterization of air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse Observatory: Classification of air ions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 105, 9291–9302.

Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1999) Classification of natural air ions near the ground. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 618–621.

Kaasik, M. (1999) Tartu linna õhusaaste hajumise arvutamine (in Estonian). Keskkonnatehnika 35–36.

Kaasik, M. (2000) Parameterisation of atmospheric boundary layer in the numerical model of air pollution transport. Doct. Thesis. Tartu University Press, Tartu.

Kaasik, M. (2000) Validation of models AEROFOUR and AEROPOL using the model validation kit established at Mol. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 14, 160–166.

Kaasik, M. (2000) A model validation data set respect to the air pollution deposition in northern winter conditions. In Air Pollution Modelling and its Applications, edited by Gryning, S.E. and Batchvarova, E., Plenum Press, N.Y., 13, pp. 771–772.

Kaasik, M., Kimmel, V. and Kaasik, H. (1999) Air quality modelling system for a medium-sized town: a case study in Estonia. In Proc. of 6th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Rouen, France, pp. CD–l.

Kaasik, M., Liblik, V. and Kaasik, H. (1999) Long-term deposition patterns of airborne wastes in the North-East of Estonia. Oil Shale 16, 315–329.

Kaasik, M., Rõõm, R., R¸yset, O., Vadset, M., Sõukand, Ü., Tõugu, K. and Kaasik, H. (2000) Elemental and base anions deposition in the snow cover of north-eastern Estonia. The impact of industrial emissions. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 121, 349–366.

Kaasik, M. and Sõukand, Ü. (2000) Balance of alkaline and acidic pollution loads in the area affected by oil shale combustion. Oil Shale 17, 113–128.

Keevallik, S., Post, P. and Tuulik, J. (1999) European circulation patterns and meteorological situation in Estonia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 63, 117–127.

Kikas, Ü. (1998) Atmospheric aerosol in the Baltic region. Particle size distributions, sources gas-to-particle conversion. Tartu.

Kikas, Ü. (2000) Reaalainete ja keskkonnaõpetuse integreerimisest (in Estonian). rmt. Reaalained ja uus õppekava, Tartu, lk. 44–49.

Kikas, Ü., Juuti, S. and Ruuskanen, J. (1997) Daily changes in aerosol size distribution in a greenhouse. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S225–S226.

Kikas, Ü., Juuti, S., Ruuskanen, J. and Tammet, H. (1998) Formation and growth of aerosol particles in greenhouse. Report Series in Aerosol Science, Helsinki 41, 40–45.

Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Examining the relationship between aerosol size distribution and atmospheric visibility in an urban area. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S661–S662.

Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Raunemaa, T. (1996) Statistical characteristics of aerosol in Baltic Sea region. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19319–19327.

Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Raunemaa, T. (1997) Bimodality of aerosol size distribution in the 0.06 - 1.0 µm diameter range observed during haze episodes. In Proc. Conf. Visual Air Quality, Aerosols, and Global Radiation Balance, Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., American Geophysical Union, Pittsburgh, pp. 507–515.

Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Raunemaa, T. (1997) Bimodality of aerosol size distribution in the 0.06 – 1.0 µm diameter range observed during haze episodes. Visual Air Quality, Aerosols and Global Radiation Balance. September, 1997, Bartlett. Abstracts, American Geophysical Union, pp. 52.

Kikas, Ü. and Peil, I. (1997) Measurements of air pollution in Estonian public schools. In Enostavne metode merjenja onesnazhenosti zraka, zbornik 1997, Ljubljana, pp. 23–34.

Kikas, Ü., Peil, I. and Miller, F. (1996) Black carbon in the air of Estonia. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by Kulmala, M. and Wagner, P.E., Pergamon Press, pp. 554–557.

Kikas, Ü., Reinart, A., Vaht, M. and Veismann, U. (2000) Impact of the boundary layer aerosol size distribution on the UV irradiance in coastal area. In Abstr. Conf. on Visibility, Aerosols and Atmospheric Physics, Vienna, pp. 6.

Kikas, Ü. and Tamm, E. (1996) Frequency distributions of aerosol particle concentrations. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 89–90.

Kivi, R, Kyrö, E. and Turunen, T. (1999) Long-term meteorological monitoring activities at Sodankylä and trends of the recent decade. Proc. Ann. Conf. of Geophysical Society of Finland, pp. 95–100.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E. and Dörnbrack, A. (2000) PSC, stratospheric temperature and ozone observations in Northern Finland in the winter of 1999/2000. Abstracts of SOLVE/THESEO 2000 Science Meeting, 25-29 September 2000, Palermo, Italy, pp. 131–131.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Dörnbrack, A., Müller, M., Wille, H., Stein, B., Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Rosen, J., Rizi, V., Stefanutti, L. and Del Guasta, M. (1999) Observations of stratospheric temperatures, ozone and aerosols over Northern Finland in the winter of 1998/1999. In Abstracts of 5th Europ. Workshop on Polar Strat.Ozone, European Commission, St. Jean de Luz, France, pp. 31.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Dörnbrack, A., Müller, M., Wille, H., Stein, B., Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Stefanutti, L., Del Guasta, M. and Rizi, V. (2000) Observations of stratospheric temperatures, ozone and aerosols above northern Finland in the winter of 1998/99. In Proceedings 5th European Workshop on Stratospheric Ozone, St. Jean de Luz, 1999. Air pollution research report, edited by Harris N. R., P., Guirlet, M. and Amanatidis G., T., Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 73, pp. 169–172.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Dörnbrack, A., Wedekind, C., Müller, M., Wille, H., Stein, B., Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Rosen, J., Rizi, V., Stefanutti, L. and Del Guasta, M. (1999) Observations of PSC type II over Northern Finland. Geophysical Research Abstracts 1, 687–687.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Mitev, V., Wille, H. and Müller, M. (2000) Some results of ozone, aerosol and stratospheric temperature measurements in northern Finland in the winter of 1998/99. Geophysical Research Abstracts 2, 430–430.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Rontu, L., Dörnbrack, A., Müller, M., Wedekind, C., Wille, H., Stein, B., Rizi, V., Redaelli, G., Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Rosen, J., Stefanutti, L. and Del Guasta, M. (1998) On occurrence of type II PSCs over Northern Finland as observed by lidar and balloon borne sondes. Abstract book of European Workshop on Mesoscale Processes in the Stratosphere, Bad Tölz,Germany, 8-11 November, pp. 55–55.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Rontu, L., Dörnbrack, A., Müller, M., Wedekind, C., Wille, H., Stein, B., Rizi, V., Redaelli, G., Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Rosen, J., Stefanutti, L. and Del Guasta, M. (1999) On occurrence of type II PSCs over Northern Finland as observed by Lidar and balloon borne sondes. In Mesoscale processes in the stratosphere. Air pollution research report 69, European Commission, Brussels, pp. 143–147.

Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Rontu, L., Wedekind, C., Stein, B., Wille, H., Dörnbrack, A., Mitev, V., Matthey, R, Rosen, J., Rizi, V., Lazzarotto, B., Calpini, B., Stefanutti, L. and Del Guasta, M. (1998) Polar stratospheric cloud measurements by lidar and balloon borne sondes at Sodankylä in 1996/1997. Annales Geophysicae 16, 929–929.

Kivi, R., Kyro, E. and Turunen, T. (2000) Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone and temperature above Northern Finland for the years 1989-1999 based on balloon borne sonde measurements. Abstracts of SPARC 2000 2nd General Assembly of the WCRP Project SPARC Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate, Mar del Plata - Rep?blica Argentina, November 6 - 10, 2000, pp. 139–139.

Kivi, R., Kyro, E., Turunen, T., Ulich, T. and Turunen, E. (1999) Atmospheric trends above Finland. Part II. Troposphere and stratosphere. Geophysica 35, 71–85.

Kõuts, T. (1999) Processes of deep water renewal in the Baltic Sea. Dissertationes Geophysicales Universitatis Tartuensis. Tartu University Press, Tartu.

Kreyling, W.G., Tuch, Th., Mirme, A., ten Brink, H., Hoek, G., Peters, A., Khlystov, A., Kos, G.P.A., Roth, C., Heinrich, J., Brunekreef, B., Wichmann, E.H., Heyder, J., Vallius, M., Ruuskanen, J. and Pekkanen, J. (1999) Exposure and risk assessment for fine and ultrafine particles in ambient urban aerosols. Proc. 3rd Colloquium on Particulate Air Pollution and Human Health, University of California, Irvine, CA, pp. 545.

Kutser, T. (1997) Estimation of water quality in turbid inland and coastal waters by passive optical remote sensing. Tartu.

Kutser, T., Veismann, U., Reinart, A., Erm, A., Herlevi, A. and Kallio, K. (1999) Field performance of the ST 1000 spectrometer in passive optical remote sensing of water bodies. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol. 48, 37–45.

Kyrö, E. and Kivi, R. (1999) Sodankylän Ilmala 50 vuotta. In Proc. Annual Conf. of Geophys. Soc. of Finland, pp. 91–94.

Kyrö, E., Kivi, R., Aulamo, H. and Damski, J. (1999) Changes in Arctic Polar Vortex. In Abstracts of 5th Europ. Workshop on Polar Strat.Ozone, European Commission, Brussels, pp. 39.

Kyrö, E., Kivi, R., Aulamo, H. and Turunen, T. (2000) Changes in Arctic Polar Vortex. Proc. of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan 3-8 July 2000, pp. 109–110.

Kyrö, E., Kivi, R. and Turunen, T. (1998) Trends in troposperic and lower stratospheric ozone in European Arctic. Annales Geophysicae 16, 942–942.

Kyrö, E., Kivi, R., Turunen, T., Aulamo, H., Rudakov, V.V., Khattatov, V., MacKenzie, A.R., Chipperfield M., P., Lee A., M., Stefanutti, L. and Ravegnani, F. (2000) Ozone measurements during the Airborne Polar Experiment: aircraft instrument validation; isentropic trends; and hemispheric fields prior to the 1997 Arctic ozone depletion. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 105, 14599–14611.

Laan, M. and Mirme, A. (1999) Ch. 8. Aerosol and corona discharges. In Electrical discharges for environmental purposes: fundamental and applications, Nova Science Publisher Inc., pp. 273.

Laanearu, J. (2000) Some aspects of the topographic control of rotating deep-water flows. Stockholm University Report 44.

Laanearu, J. and Lilover, M.J. (1999) On the hydraulically controlled flow with zero potential vorticity through the deep passage of the Irbe Strait. EMI Report Series 67–72.

Laanearu, J., Lips, U. and Lundberg, P. (2000) On the application of the hydraulic theory to the deep-water flow through the Irbe Strait. Journal of Marine Systems 25, 323–332.

Laanearu, J. and Lundberg, P. (2000) Topographic control of rotating deep water flow through the combination of a sill and a horizontal constriction. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 28663–28670.

Lust, M., Realo, K. and Realo, E. (1999) Modelling of the atmospheric dispersion of the fly-ash radionuclides. Trends in physics. 11th General Conference of the EPS, 6-10. September 1999. Abstract book, London, pp. SPG.P3.20.

Luts, A. (1998) Temperature variation of the evolution of positive small air ions at constant relative humidity. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 60, 1739–1750.

Mäkelä, J.M. and Salm, J. (2000) Small air ion concentration measurements in connection with ultrafine particle formation observed at a Boreal forest. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S940–S941.

Mäkelä, Y.M., Salm, J., Smirnov, V.V., Koponen, I., Paatero, J. and Pronin, A.A. (2000) Electrical charging state of fine and ultrafine particles in boundary layer of atmosphere. Abstracts of the Intern. Aerosol Conf. to Memory of Prof. A.Sutugin. 26-30 June, 2000. Moscow, Russia, Moscow, pp. 145–146.

Männik, A. (2000) Experience with HIRLAM on GNU/Linux PC cluster. HIRLAM Newsletter 35, 211–213.

Männik, A. and Rõõm, R. (1999) Orographic buoyancy waves in pressure-coordinate dynamics. IUGG99 abstracts, A, pp. A15.

Männik, A. and Rõõm, R. (2000) Anelastic nonhydrostatic model in pressure-related coordinates: a novel theoretical concept with an application in HIRLAM. Geoph. Res. Abstr. 2,.

Mirme, A., Kikas, Ü. and Tamm, E. (1999) The receptor-oriented study of aerosol residence times. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S531–S532.

Mirme, A., Minkkinen, P. and Ruuskanen, J. (1996) Behaviour of urban aerosol, black carbon and gaseous pollutants in urban air: exploratory principal component analysis. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by Kulmala, M. and Wagner, P.E., Pergamon, pp. 423–426.

Mirme, A., Paris, P., Kikas, Ü., Laan, M. and Tamm, E. (1999) Characterisation of corona aerosol using an Electrical Aerosol Spectrometer. In Electret filters, production and properties. Proceedings of International Workshop on Electret Filters, Production and Properties, Warsaw, Poland, January 29 and 30, 1999, edited by Stenhouse, J.I.T., Gradon, L. and Marijnissen, J.C.M., Delft University Press, pp. 151–160.

Mirme, A. and Ruuskanen, J. (1996) Comparison of aerosol measurements in urban environment. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S23–S24.

Mirme, A. and Salm, J. (1999) Concurrent study of aerosol particle size distribution and of air ions in urban air. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S387–S388.

Mirme, A. and Salm, J. (2000) A study of ambient aerosols and air ions in winter season. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S702–S703.

Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Sievert, U. (1999) Performance of an optical and an ionisation smoke detector compared to a wide range aerosol spectrometer. In AUBE ’99. 11. Internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung. Proceedings, Duisburg, pp. 380–391.

Mirme, A., Tammet, H. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometry for environmental aerosol monitoring. Report Series in Aerosol Science. Helsinki 9–14.

Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Grigorov, I., Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Morandi, M., Castagnoli, F., DelGuasta, M., Stein, B., Wedekind, C., Rizi, V. and Agostini, P. (1999) Rayleigh backscatter lidar measurement of stratospheric temperature above Sodankyla - Finland. In Abstracts of 5th Europ. Workshop on Polar Strat. Ozone, European Commission, Brussels, pp. 48.

Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Grigorov, I., Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Morandi, M., Castagnoli, F., Del Guasta, M., Stein, B., Wedekind, C., Rizi, V. and Agostini, P. (2000) Rayleigh backscatter lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature above Sodankylä - Finland. In Proceedings 5th European Workshop on Stratospheric Ozone, St. Jean de Luz, 1999. Air pollution research report, edited by Harris, N.R.P., Guirlet, M. and Amanatidis, G.T., Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 73, pp. 103–106.

Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Grigorov, I., Kyrö, E., Kivi, R., Morandi, M., Rizi, V., Müller, M. and Stein, B. (2000) Rayleigh lidar observation of wintertime stratospheric temperature perturbations above Sodankylä - Finland: correlation with PSC events and stratospheric warming. In Proc. of 20th ILRC, pp. 4 p.

Müller, M., Stein, B., Wedekind, C., Wille, H., Wöste, L., Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Rizi, V., Redaelli, G., Mitev, V. and Matthey, R. (1998) Case study on lidar observed ice PSC over Northern Finland. European Workshop on Mesoscale Processes in the Stratosphere, Bad Tölz, Germany, 8-11 November, 1998, pp. 75–75.

Müller, M., Stein, B., Wedekind, C., Wille, H., Wöste, L., Kivi, R., Kyrö, E., Rizi, V., Redaelli, G., Mitev, V. and Matthey, R. (1999) Case study on lidar observed ice PSC over Northern Finland. European Commission. Air pollution research report 175–179.

Nilson, T. (1997) A BDRF model for forests. Journal of Remote Sensing 77–81.

Nilson, T. and Ross, J. (1996) Modeling radiative transfer through forest canopies: Implications for canopy photosynthesis and remote sensing. In The Use of Remote Sensing in the Modeling of Forest Productivity, edited by Gholz, H.L., Nakane, K. and Shimoda, Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, pp. 23–36.

Noppel, M. (1997) Binary nucleation of water-sulfuric acid system: A revision of the classical hydrates interaction model. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S173–S174.

Noppel, M. (1998) Binary nucleation of water-sulfuric acid system: A reexamination of the classical hydrates interaction model. J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9052–9056.

Noppel, M. (1998) Binary nucleation of water-sulfuric acid system: The effect of the shape of the free energy surface and compressibility of solution on the nucleation rate. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S377–S378.

Noppel, M. (1999) Enthalpy and entropy changes in formation of gas-phase sulfuric acid mono- and dihydrates as a result of fitting to experimental pressure data. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S297–S298.

Noppel, M. (2000) Enthalpy and entropy changes in formation of gas phase sulfuric acid monohydrates and dihydrates as a result of fitting to experimental pressure data. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 105, 19779–19786.

Noppel, M. (2000) Self-consistent binary cluster size distributions of sulfuric acid-water system. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2000. 15th International Conference, AIP Conference Proceedings, edited by Hale B., H. and Kulmala, M., Melville, New York, 534, pp. 339–342.

Noppel, M. (1996) Nucleation in the presence of air ions and aerosol particles. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by Kulmala, M. and Wagner, P.E., Pergamon, pp. 208–211.

Noppel, M. and Hõrrak, U. (2000) Simulation of the mobility spectrum of charged particles during bursts in atmospheric air. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S700–701.

Ohvril, H., Okulov, O. and Jaagus, J. (1998) Atmospheric transparency in Estonia during last 60 years. In Proc. of the Second International Conference on Climate and water, Espoo, Finland, 17-20 Aug. 1998, 2, pp. 682–690.

Ohvril, H., Okulov, O., Teral, H. and Teral, K. (1999) The atmospheric integral transparency coefficient and the Forbes effect. Solar Energy 66, 305–317.

Okulov, O., Ohvril, H., Teral, H., Tee, M., Russak, V. and Abakumova, G. (2000) Multiannual variability of atmospheric transparency in Estonia and Moscow. IRS 2000, Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, International Radiation Symposium, July 24–29,2000, Abstracts, St.-Petersburg State University, Russia, pp. 161–162.

Olmo, F.J., Tovar, J., Alados-Arboledas, L., Okulov, O. and Ohvril, H.O. (1999) A comparison of ground level solar radiative effects of recent volcanic eruptions. Atmos. Environ. 33, 4589–4596.

Paris, P., Laan, M., Mirme, A. and van Veldhuizen, E.M. (1996) Corona discharge as generator of aerosol. Int. Symp. On High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry, Sept. 2-4, 1996, Mlovy, Czech Republic, pp. 185–189.

Paris, P., Mirme, A. and Laan, M. (1998) Study of corona discharge aerosol with an electrical aerosol spectrometer. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S845–S846.

Parts, T.-E. (1996) On the chemical nature of small air ions. Proceedings of the NOSA/NORSAC Symposium 1996, Ris¸, pp. 60–62.

Parts, T.-E. (1996) On the nature of small indoor air ions. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S444–S445.

Parts, T.-E. (1997) The influence of organic nitrogen- and oxygen-containing trace gases on the mobility spectra of small air ions. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S703–S704.

Parts, T.-E. (1998) Experimental evidence of dimers, trimers and tetramers in cluster ions. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S891–S892.

Parts, T.-E. (1999) Comparison of indoor and outdoor small air ions. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S593–S594.

Parts, T.-E. (1999) Seasonal dependence of electrical mobility spectra of small air ions. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 563–566.

Parts, T.-E. and Luts, A. (2000) One-second small ions - modelling and laboratory experiments. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S338–S339.

Pekkanen, J., Mirme, A., Tuch, T., ten Brink, H., Peters, A., Khlystov, A., Kos, G.P.A., Brunekreef, B., Wichmann, H.E., Vallius, M., Ruuskanen, J. and Kreyling, W. (1999) Exposure and risk assessment for fine and ultrafine particles in ambient air (ultra). Epidemiology 10, 3030–3030.

Pekkanen, J., Timonen, K.L., Ruuskanen, J., Reponen, A. and Mirme, A. (1997) Effects of ultrafine and fine particles in urban air on peak expiratory flow among children with asthmatic symptoms. J. Environ. Research 74, 24–33.

Post, P. (1998) About coupling of European circulation patterns and Estonian precipitation fields. Proc. 2nd Study Conference on BALTEX, Juliusruh, Island of Rügen, Germany, 25-29 May 1998, pp. 176–176.

Post, P. and Tuulik, J. (1999) About the relationships between Estonian weather elements and European circulation patterns. Phys. Chem. Earth (B) 24, 97–102.

Post, P. and Tuulik, J. (1999) Temperatuuri- ja sademejaotustest erinevate tsirkulatsioonitüüpide korral Eesti ja Saksamaa jaamades (in Estonian). Publicationes Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis 85, 134–143.

Putnik, H. and Realo, E. (1999) Status and regulatory aspects of decommissioning in Estonia. Abstracts of the EC Workshop on the Policy and Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning, June 7-8, 1999, Mol, Belgium, pp. p. Estonia.

Rannat, K. and Heinloo, J. (1999) Model of vertical transport in stratified turbulent environment, considered as rotationally isotropic. EMI Report series 15–24.

Rannat, K. and Heinloo, J. (1999) The staircase-like vertical structure of hydrophysical fields: the model and numerical scenarios. EGS XXIV General Assembly,.

Raudsepp, U., Toompuu, A. and Kõuts, T. (1999) A stochastic model for the sea level in the Estonian coastal area. Journal of Marine Systems 22, 69–87.

Raunemaa, T., Kuuspalo, K., Ålander, T., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1996) Age estimation of atmospheric black carbon over Finland from combined aerosol size distribution and radon progeny measurements. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 455–465.

Realo, E. (1999) University courses on radiation protection in Estonia. Scientific Programme & Book of Abstracts, Nordic Society for Radiation Protection/ IRPA 12th ordinary meeting, 23-27 August 1999, Skagen, Denmark, pp. 16–16.

Realo, E. (1999) University courses on radiation protection in Estonia. Proc. Nordic Soc. Radiation Protection/ IRPA 12th ordinary meeting, 23-27 August 1999, Skagen, Denmark, pp. 65–68.

Realo, E., Haas, M., Meyer, W., Leupold, O., Winkler, H., Grünsteudel, H., Grünsteudel, H.F., Metge, J., Gerdau, E. and Trautwein, A.X. (1996) Spin-Hamiltonian system in the time domain: nuclear resonant forward scattering of synchrotron radiation by ferrous high-spin iron in [Fe(CH3 CO2 )(TPpivP)]-. In Conf. Proc. of Italian Physical Society, 50, ICAME-95, edited by Ortalli, I., SIF Bologna, pp. 861–864.

Realo, E., Realo, K. and Jõgi, J. (1996) Releases of natural radionuclides from oil-shale-fired power plants in Estonia. J. Environ. Radioactivity 33, 77–89.

Realo, E. and Viik, T. (koost.) (1997) Kiirguskaitse sõnastik. Inglise-eesti & Eesti-inglise. EKK Seeria: Kiirgused meis ja meie ümber, N. 2 (in Estonian). Tartu.

Realo, K. and Realo, E. (1999) 210Pb and 238U in Estonian fuel products and ashes. Scientific Programme & Book of Abstracts, Nordic Society for Radiation Protection/ IRPA 12th ordinary meeting, 23-27 August 1999, Skagen, Denmark, pp. 58–58.

Realo, K. and Realo, E. (1999) 210Pb and 238U in Estonian fuel products and ashes. Proc. Nordic Soc. Radiation Protection/ IRPA 12th ordinary meeting, 23-27 August 1999, Skagen, Denmark, pp. 229–232.

Reinart, A. (1999) Photosynthetically available radiation in LakeVõrtsjärv at winter by the model of incident solar radiation. Publicationes Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis 84, 84–91.

Reinart, A. (2000) Underwater light field characteristics in different types of Estonian and Finnish lakes. Doct. Thesis. Tartu University Press, Tartu.

Reinart, A., Arst, H., Nõges, P. and Nõges, T. (2000) Comparison of euphotic layer criteria in lakes. Geophysica 36, 146–152.

Reinart, A., Nõges, P. and Nõges, T. (1998) Relationship between primary production and optical properties of eutrophic water bodies for remote sensing purposes. Remote Sensing of Marine and Coastal Environments. Proc. Fifth Int. Conf., San Diego, California, USA, 1, pp. 377–377.

Reponen, A., Ruuskanen, J., Mirme, A., Pärjälä, E., Hoek, G., Roemer, W., Hosiokangas, J., Pekkanen, J. and Jantunen, M. (1996) Comparison of five methods for measuring particulate matter concentrations in cold winter climate. Atmos. Environ. 30, 3873–3879.

Rizi, V., Redaelli, R., Visconti, G., Wedekind, C., Stein, B., Wille, H., Mielke, B., Rairoux, P., Woste, L., Del Guasta, M., Morandi, L., Castagnoli, F., Balestri, S., Stefanutti, L., Matthey, R., MitevV., Douard, M., Wolf, J.-P., Kyrö, E., Rummukainen, M. and Kivi, R. (1999) Trajectory studies of PSC LIDAR observations at Sodankylä (Finland) during SESAME: comparison with box model results of particle evolution. J. Atm. Chem. 32, 165–181.

Rõõm, R. (1996) Free and rigid boundary quasi-geostrophic models in pressure coordinates. J. Atm. Sci. 56, 1496–1501.

Rõõm, R. and Männik, A. (1999) On the development of nonhydrostatic version of HIRLAM. Report of HIRLAM 4 Workshop, 10 - 12 May, 1999 on ``High Resolution Modelling'', pp. 89–99.

Rõõm, R. and Männik, A. (1999) Response of different high-resolution, nonhydrostatic, pressure-coordinate models to orographic forcing. J. Atm. Sci. 55, 2553–2570.

Rõõm, R. and Männik, A. (2000) Nonhydrostatic adiabatic kernel for HIRLAM. HIRLAM Newsletter 35, 103–109.

Ross, J. and Mõttus, M. (2000) Statistical treatment of sunfleck length inside willow coppice. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 104, 215–231.

Ross, J. and Mõttus, M. (2000) Statistical treatment of umbra length inside willow coppice. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 100, 89–102.

Ruuskanen, J., Parkkinen, J., Mirme, A. and Liikanen, P. (1996) Urban airborne pollutant analysis by a neural network. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by Kulmala, M. and Wagner, P.E., Pergamon, pp. 639–642.

Salm, J. (1997) Mobility shift in a differential mobility analyser due to diffusion. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S269–S270.

Salm, J. (1998) Electrical dispersion of aerosol particles: An exponential mobility spectrum. Abstracts of the 7th European Symposium Particle Characterization, Nürnberg, pp. 87–87.

Salm, J. (1998) Electrical dispersion of aerosol particles: An exponential mobility spectrum. In Preprints III of the 7th European Symposium Particle Characterization, Nürnberg, pp. 821–828.

Salm, J. (1999) The effect of turbulent diffusion in differential mobility analyzers. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S381–S382.

Salm, J. (2000) Diffusion distortions in a Differential Mobility Analyzer: The shape of apparent mobility spectrum. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 602–612.

Salm, J. and Tamm, E. (2000) Air ion measurements in Hyytiälä during BIOFOR3. Report Series in Aerosol Science 87–90.

Stein, B., Wedekind, C., Wille, H., Immler, F., Müller, M., Wöste, L., del Guasta, M., Morandi, M., Stefanutti, L., Antonelli, A., Agostini, P., Rizi, V., Redaelli, G., Mitev, V., Matthey, R., Kivi, R. and Kyrö, E. (1999) Optical classification, existence temperatures, and coexistence of different polar stratospheric cloud types. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 104, 23983–23993.

Tamm, E., Mirme, A., Sievert, U. and Franken, D. (1999) Aerosol particle concentration and size distribution measurements of test-fires as a background for fire detector modeling. In AUBE ’99. 11. Internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung. Proceedings, Duisburg, pp. 150–159.

Tamm, E. and Vana, M. (1996) Experimental study of the particulate pollution propagation and of the area of representativity of the atmospheric aerosol spectrum measurements. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S87–S88.

Tamm, E. and Vana, M. (1997) Study of the atmospheric aerosol size spectrum transformation. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S221–S222.

Tammet, H. (1996) Air ions and aerosol science. In Phenomena in Ionized Gases, AIP Conf. Proc., pp. 224–233.

Tammet, H. (1996) Productivity of an electric mobility classifier. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S219–S220.

Tammet, H. (1996) Reduction of air ion mobility to standard conditions. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Atmos. Electr., Osaka, pp. 64–67.

Tammet, H. (1997) Atmospheric ion depletion as a measure of aerosol particle diameter concentration. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S377–S378.

Tammet, H. (1998) Air ions. In CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, 14, pp. 32–34.

Tammet, H. (1998) Optimal length of the plain Loscertales mobility analyzer (in Estonian). J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S63–S64.

Tammet, H. (1998) Reduction of air ion mobility to standard conditions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 103, 13933–13937.

Tammet, H. (1999) The limits of air ion mobility resolution. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 626–629.

Tammet, H. and Israelsson, S. (1999) Atmospheric electricity as a factor of dry deposition of particulate pollution. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 622–625.

Tammet, H., Israelsson, S., Knudsen, E. and Tuomi, T.J. (1996) Effective area of a horizontal long-wire antenna collecting the atmospheric electric vertical current. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 101, 29671–29677.

Tammet, H. and Kimmel, V. (1998) Electrostatic deposition of radon daughter clusters on the trees. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S473–S474.

Tammet, H., Kimmel, V. and Israelsson, S. (2000) Atmospheric electric field as a factor of deposition of aerosol particles. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S1029–S1030.

Tammet, H., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S427–S428.

Tiittanen, P., Timonen, K.L., Ruuskanen, J., Mirme, A. and Pekkanen, J. (1999) Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children. European Respiratory Journal 13, 266–273.

Toompuu, A. and Raudsepp, U. (1999) A stochastic model for the sea level data analysis. EMI Report Series 55–61.

Trautwein, A.X., Winkler, H., Schwendy, S., Grünsteudel, H., Meyer-Klaucke, W., Leupold, O., Rüter, H.D., Gerdau, E., Haas, M., Realo, E., Mandon, D. and Weiss, R. (1998) Iron porphyrins reinvestigated by a new method: Mössbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. Pure and Applied Chemistry 70, 917–924.

Tuch, Th., Mirme, A., Tamm, E., Heinrich, J., Heyder, J., Brand, P., Roth, Ch., Wichmann, H.E., Pekkanen, J. and Kreyling, W.G. (2000) Comparison of two particle-size spectrometers for ambient aerosol measurements. Atmos. Environ. 34, 139–149.

Turunen, T. and Kivi, R. (2000) Sodankylän otsonihavainnot kuluneena talvena. Ilmastokatsaus 8–9.

Tuulik, J. and Post, P. (1999) Euroopa ilmamustritega seotud õhumasside omaduste uurimine Eestis ja Kesk-Euroopas (in Estonian). Publicationes Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis 85, 144–154.

Ulich, T., Turunen, E., Karinen, A., Kivi, R. and Kyrö, E. (1999) Atmospheric trends above Finland. I. Mesosphere and thermosphere. Geophysica 35, 59–69.

Vana, M., Hõrrak, U. and Tamm, E. (2000) Comparative study of the ultrafine aerosol particle and intermediate air ion concentration bursts in the atmosphere. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S176–S177.

Vana, M., Jennings, S.G., Kleefeld, C., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1999) Development of the atmospheric aerosol size spectrum during low tide in the clean marine coastal environment. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S175–S176.

Vana, M. and Tamm, E. (1998) Study of the aerosol size spectrum transformation by synchronized monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S205–S206.

Vana, M. and Tamm, E. (1999) About the study of the propagation of particulate matter by synchronized monitoring of atmospheric aerosols. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S223–S224.

Vana, M., Tamm, E. and Viil, M. (1999) Experimental study of the air pollution transport by synchronised monitoring of atmospheric aerosols. Atmos. Environ. 33, 4615–4628.

Viskari, E.-L., Surakka, J., Pasanen, P., Mirme, A., Kössi, S., Ruuskanen, J. and Holopainen, J.K. (2000) Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions - I plant-insect interactions. Environmental Pollution 107, 89–98.
 
 
 
 

Appendix 2

Description of the Air Electricity Laboratory

The Air Electricity Laboratory is an informal structure unit of the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Tartu. Main direction of the research of the Laboratory has been the development of the measurement methods of atmospheric aerosols and ionization, and the application of results in design and building of original instruments. In such way, a basic set of apparatus has been collected mainly of original instruments. Many of these original instruments excel analogous commercial instruments, regarding their potential in research. This gives favorable conditions for research and for graduate study. A valuable basis for graduate study is the database of regular atmospheric monitoring collected during many years. The database contains more significant scientific information than the professors and researchers are able to analyze. This database gives good preconditions for graduate study.

The most essential apparatus of the Laboratory for atmospheric research is: (1) Air Ion Spectrometers, NO2 meter and other devices installed at Tahkuse Observatory; (2) Two portable Electric Aerosol Spectrometers (EAS). EAS is an original apparatus designed at the Air Electricity Laboratory; it excels analogous apparatus with regard to several parameters: standard range of particle diameters 10 nm – 10 µm, extended range of 3–10 nm, time resolution of 4 s. EAS is designed for measurements in free air. It is suitable for long time monitoring of aerosol particle size distribution in heavily polluted ambient air in the cities. The reliability of the instrument is confirmed by measurement in many locations (Tartu, Tallinn, Erfurt, Helsinki, Kuopio), especially by the experience of six month almost unattended (once in two weeks) continuous monitoring of atmospheric aerosols in Helsinki during winter of 1996/97. (3) Optical aerosol particle size spectrometer LASAIR.

The long time series of aerosol measurements by EAS give an opportunity to study the development of aerosol size spectra, to check the spectral models, to study the correlations with meteorological and radiation parameters, and the correlation with distribution of pollution sources. The synchronous measurements by means of two EAS at different places enable to study the regularities of pollution transport.

The main apparatus at Tahkuse Observatory:

Automated Air Ion Spectrometer of wide mobility range from 0.00032 to 3.2 cm2 V- 1 s- 1 that is divided into 20 parallel channels, built in the University of Tartu.

NO2 concentration meter, built in the University of Turku, Finland.

Total ozone meter M-83.

Pyranometer M-80M.

Sensors of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, pressure and relative humidity.

The apparatus operates round the clock; the data are saved as 5 min averages. The apparatus makes it possible to monitor the mobility spectra of air ions (or charged aerosol particles) together with other atmospheric parameters during a long time. Such a combination of apparatus is unique in the world. There is still a need in a SO2 meter.

Laboratory has five portable multi-purpose air ion counters UT-8401. The set of these counters has been used in long-term atmospheric measurements in Tartu and at Hyytiälä, Finland, in 1998–2000.

An automatic weather station with Internet access is installed in the roof of the building where the institute is located. The weather station supplies the urban atmospheric aerosol and air ion measurements with background meteorological data since 1999. Additionally, it is used training of students in meteorology.

A complete set of the generators of monodisperse aerosols covering a particle diameter range from 10 nm to 2 µm is installed in the Laboratory. An electrical separator is used as an aerosol standard. It covers whole the above range of diameters and produces aerosol particles with any prearranged average diameter and with a narrow distribution (relative half width below 5%). A self-designed aerosol electrometer serves for measurements of the number concentration of aerosol particles. A photographic trace analyzer is available for the study of coarse aerosols (diameter above 0.3 µm).

Two high-resolution Air Ion Spectrometers serve for experiments on the effects of trace gases in the air.

The laboratory has two standard aerosol samplers and one high volume sampler.

There are many of general purpose research instruments at the Laboratory: devices for measurements of air flow (rotameters, rheometers, drum-flowmeters), sources and filters of compressed air, calibrated high voltage supplies, thermoanemometer etc.







Appendix 3

CV – Hannes Tammet



Name: Hannes Tammet.

Birth place and date: Tallinn, Estonia, 5 August 1937.

Education and degrees:

Diploma in Physics, University of Tartu 1959,

Cand. Sci., University of Tartu 1964,

Thesis: Aspiration method for the study of ionized air and aerosols

D. Sc., Main Geophysical Observatory, 1979.

Thesis: Spectrometry of air ion mobilities
 
 

Professional experience:
1956-1959 Technical Assistant, Department of Physics, Tartu University

1959-1961, 1964-1966 Teaching Assistant, Department of Physics, Tartu University

1966-1967 Senior Lecturer, Department of Physics, Tartu University

1967-1971, 1973-1978 Docent, Department of Physics, Tallinn Pedagogical Institute

1971-1973 Senior Scientist, Department of Physics, Tallinn Pedagogical Institute

1977-1981 Head of the Department of Physics, Tallinn Pedagogical Institute

1978-1983 Professor, Department of Physics, Tallinn Pedagogical Institute

1983-1992 Head/Chief Scientist of the Air Electricity Laboratory, Tartu University

1992- Professor of Environmental Physics, Tartu University

1993- Professor of Environmental Physics and

Head of the Department of Environmental Physics, Tartu University

Experience in foreign universities and institutes:

1995- 1996 Fulbright scholar at University of Minnesota, USA (5 months).

1998 Visiting professor at Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India (1 month).

1998- 1999 Guest professor founded by Visby Programme at University of Uppsala, Sweden (5 months).
Teaching experience:

Laboratory Physics Tartu University 1959-1961, 1964-1967

Tallinn Pedagogical Institute 1967-1971, 1973-1983

Physics Exercises Tartu University 1959-1961, 1964-1967

Tallinn Pedagogical Institute 1967-1971

Lectures in Physics Tartu University 1964-1967, 1994-

Tallinn Pedagogical Institute 1967-1971, 1973-1983

Lectures in Computer Sci. Tallinn Pedagogical Institute 1973-1983

Lectures in Atmospheric Electricity Tartu University 1983-

Lectures in Design of Experiment Tartu University 1990-1995

Lectures in Statistical Data Analysis Tartu University 1996-

Lectures in Processing of Measurements Tartu University 1996-

Dissertations advised:

J. Salm cand. phys.-math. 1970, E. Tamm cand. phys.-math. 1975,
M. Fischer cand. eng. 1977, M. Noppel cand. phys.-math. 1989,
Ü. Kikas MS 1994, Matisen MS 1994, V. Kimmel MS 1994, V. Babin MS 1995,
Ü. Kikas Ph.D. 1998.

Conferences, seminars, and workshops:

Participation in arranging of conferences

· Vice chairman of the Organizing Commitee and chairman of local Organizing Commitee, 3th All-Union Symposium on Atmospheric Electricity, Tartu, 1986.

· Member of Scientific Program and Editing Commitee, 8th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Uppsala, 1988.

· Member of Advisory Board, 9th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, St. Petersburg, 1992.

· Member of Technical Programme Commitee, European Aerosol Conference, Helsinki, 1995.

· Member of Advisory Board, 10th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Osaka, 1996.

· Member of Technical Programme Commitee, European Aerosol Conference, Delft, 1996.

· Member of Advisory Board, 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Guntersville, 1999.

Participation in conferences during last three years 1998- 2000:

5th International Aerosol Conference Edinburgh, UK, September 1998.

Annual Conference of Nordic Aerosol Society , Helsinki, Finland, November 1998.

11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity Guntersville, USA, June 1999.

ESF Space Weather Workshop, Strasbourg, France, December 1999.

ESF Space Weather Workshop, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, November 2000.

Many seminar lectures in Estonia, Russia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Germany and USA.

Memberships:

Estonian Physical Society

Institute of Physics (UK)

Estonian National Commitee of The International Geosphere-Bioshpere Programme

American Institute of Biomedical Climatology

International Commission on Atmospheric Electricity (Vice President 1988-1992).

Editorial Board: Journal of Aerosol Science.

Scientific contribution and expertise:

Scientific activity of H. Tammet has been started with a study of air ion generation techniques and redirected into the field of air ion measurements. First essential achievement was the revision of the theory of the aspiration method summarized in a monograph. Success in measurement of particle mobility and size distributions is dependent on advances in mathematical methods of solution of inverse problems. During a short period, the mathematical problems of inverse problem have been a leading subject of the research. Subsequently, the attention was concentrated on the electrical techniques of aerosol measurement. A new method of simultaneously applied ion diffusion and impact charging was proposed, and the multi-channel measurement technique was developed. A universal matrix model was applied to describe the aerosol measurements. Simultaneously, the studies of atmospheric ions have been continued.

Research of global and local variations of the atmospheric electrical vertical current was started in late seventies following a proposal by L.H. Ruhnke. Ruhnke-Tammet effect is a central subject of research in an international Global Atmospheric Electricity Measurement (GAEM) program.

Simultaneously with continued activity in the main scientific area, some problems of computer-aided education have been studied by H. Tammet. Most of the results are in field of automatic synthesis of physics exercises and the methodology of use of synthesized exercises in schools.

Publications:

257 academic publications incl. journal papers, conference abstracts, patents, university textbooks and manuals are listed in http://ael.physic.ut.ee/tammet/www/ht-bib.htm. 25 refereed scientific papers published during last five years 1996–2000 are listed below.

1. Belova, E., Kirkwood, S., Nielsen, E. and Tammet, H. The ground-level atmospheric current response to a magnetic substorm. In Proc. 5th Internat. Conf. on Substorms, St. Petersburg, pp. 473–476.

2. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric Research 46, 233–242.

3. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Study of covariations of aerosol and air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse, Estonia. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S849–S850.

4. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1996) Derivation of the size spectrum of aerosol particles from a mobility spectrum. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by M. Kulmala and P.E., Wagner, Pergamon, pp. 562–565.

5. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Method of calculation of the size spectrum of aerosol particles according to their mobility spectrum. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S223–S224.

6. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Outbursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air. In Proceedings 10th Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Osaka, pp. 76–79.

7. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Statistical characterization of air ion spectra at Tahkuse Observatory 1993-1994. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Atmos. Electr., Osaka, pp. 72–75.

8. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1998) Bursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 103, 13909–13915.

9. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (2000) Statistical characterization of air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse Observatory: Classification of air ions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 105, 9291–9302.

10. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1999) Classification of natural air ions near the ground. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 618–621.

11. Kikas, Ü., Juuti, S., Ruuskanen, J. and Tammet, H. (1998) Formation and growth of aerosol particles in greenhouse. Report Series in Aerosol Science, Helsinki 41, 40–45.

12. Mirme, A., Tammet, H. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometry for environmental aerosol monitoring. Report Series in Aerosol Science. Helsinki 9–14.

13. Tammet, H. (1996) Air ions and aerosol science. In Phenomena in Ionized Gases, AIP Conf. Proc., pp. 224–233.

14. Tammet, H. (1996) Productivity of an electric mobility classifier. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S219–S220.

15. Tammet, H. (1996) Reduction of air ion mobility to standard conditions. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Atmos. Electr., Osaka, pp. 64–67.

16. Tammet, H. (1997) Atmospheric ion depletion as a measure of aerosol particle diameter concentration. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S377–S378.

17. Tammet, H. (1998) Air ions. In CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, 14, pp. 32–34.

18. Tammet, H. (1998) Optimal length of the plain Loscertales mobility analyzer (in Estonian). J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S63–S64.

19. Tammet, H. (1998) Reduction of air ion mobility to standard conditions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 103, 13933–13937.

20. Tammet, H. (1999) The limits of air ion mobility resolution. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 626–629.

21. Tammet, H. and Israelsson, S. (1999) Atmospheric electricity as a factor of dry deposition of particulate pollution. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 622–625.

22. Tammet, H., Israelsson, S., Knudsen, E. and Tuomi, T.J. (1996) Effective area of a horizontal long-wire antenna collecting the atmospheric electric vertical current. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 101, 29671–29677.

23. Tammet, H. and Kimmel, V. (1998) Electrostatic deposition of radon daughter clusters on the trees. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S473–S474.

24. Tammet, H., Kimmel, V. and Israelsson, S. (2000) Atmospheric electric field as a factor of deposition of aerosol particles. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S1029–S1030.

25. Tammet, H., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S427–S428.



 
 
 
 

Appendix 4

CV – Eduard Tamm

Name: Eduard Tamm
 
 

Birth place and date: Leningrad region, Russia, 26 September 1935.
 
 

Education and degrees:

Diploma, University of Tartu 1960,

Cand. Sci., University of Tartu 1975,
 
 

Professional experience:
1958-today: University of Tartu, Faculty of Chemistry and Physics

The positions: technical assistant, teaching assistant, senion engineer,

head of the laboratory, senior lecturer, docent.

Honors/awards:

1967 - Prize of Soviet Estonia (member of team leaded by J. Reinet)

1988 - Tartu University Innovation Award.

Memberships:

Gesellschaft für Aerosolforschung,

Finnish Association for Aerosol Research (FAAR – since

Editorial Board of international journal "Atmospheric Physics" published in Lithuania.

Ph.D and MS degrees under supervision:

Consultatnt for theses by M.Noppel (Cand. Sci. 1989), Aadu Mirme (Ph.D. 1994), and Ü. Kikas (1998), supervisor of MS thesis by Marko Vana, 1996.
 
 

Participating in international scientific conferences: European Aerosol Conference 1996, Delft, the Netherlands, 9-12.09.1996; European Aerosol Conference 1997, Hamburg, Germany,15-19.09.1997; 5th International Aerosol Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, 14-18.09.1998; 11. Internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung, Duisburg, Germahy, 16-18.03.1999; European Aerosol Conference 1999, Prague, Czech Republic, 6-10.09.1999; European Aerosol Conference 2000, Dublin, Ireland, 3-8.09.2000.
 
 

Publications:

Refereed scientific papers published during last five years 1996–2000 are listed below.

1. Fischer, M., Jennings, G., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Microphysical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol depending on air mass origin. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S187–S188.

2. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric Research 46, 233–242.

3. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Study of covariations of aerosol and air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse, Estonia. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S849–S850.

4. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1996) Derivation of the size spectrum of aerosol particles from a mobility spectrum. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by M. Kulmala and P.E., Wagner, Pergamon, pp. 562–565.

5. Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Examining the relationship between aerosol size distribution and atmospheric visibility in an urban area. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S661–S662.

6. Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Raunemaa, T. (1996) Statistical characteristics of aerosol in Baltic Sea region. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19319–19327.

7. Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Raunemaa, T. (1997) Bimodality of aerosol size distribution in the 0.06 - 1.0 µm diameter range observed during haze episodes. In Proc. Conf. Visual Air Quality, Aerosols, and Global Radiation Balance, Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., American Geophysical Union, Pittsburgh, pp. 507–515.

8. Kikas, Ü. and Tamm, E. (1996) Frequency distributions of aerosol particle concentrations. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 89–90.

9. Mirme, A., Kikas, Ü. and Tamm, E. (1999) The receptor-oriented study of aerosol residence times. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S531–S532.

10. Mirme, A., Paris, P., Kikas, Ü., Laan, M. and Tamm, E. (1999) Characterisation of corona aerosol using an Electrical Aerosol Spectrometer. In Electret filters, production and properties. Proceedings of International Workshop on Electret Filters, Production and Properties, Warsaw, Poland, January 29 and 30, 1999, edited by Stenhouse, J.I.T., Gradon, L. and Marijnissen, J.C.M., Delft University Press, pp. 151–160.

11. Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Sievert, U. (1999) Performance of an optical and an ionisation smoke detector compared to a wide range aerosol spectrometer. In AUBE ’99. 11. Internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung. Proceedings, Duisburg, pp. 380–391.

12. Mirme, A., Tammet, H. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometry for environmental aerosol monitoring. Report Series in Aerosol Science. Helsinki 9–14.

13. Raunemaa, T., Kuuspalo, K., Ålander, T., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1996) Age estimation of atmospheric black carbon over Finland from combined aerosol size distribution and radon progeny measurements. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 455–465.

14. Salm, J. and Tamm, E. (2000) Air ion measurements in Hyytiälä during BIOFOR3. Report Series in Aerosol Science 87–90.

15. Tamm, E., Mirme, A., Sievert, U. and Franken, D. (1999) Aerosol particle concentration and size distribution measurements of test-fires as a background for fire detector modeling. In AUBE ’99. 11. Internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung. Proceedings, Duisburg, pp. 150–159.

16. Tamm, E. and Vana, M. (1996) Experimental study of the particulate pollution propagation and of the area of representativity of the atmospheric aerosol spectrum measurements. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S87–S88.

17. Tamm, E. and Vana, M. (1997) Study of the atmospheric aerosol size spectrum transformation. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S221–S222.

18. Tammet, H., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S427–S428.

19. Tuch, Th., Mirme, A., Tamm, E., Heinrich, J., Heyder, J., Brand, P., Roth, Ch., Wichmann, H.E., Pekkanen, J. and Kreyling, W.G. (2000) Comparison of two particle-size spectrometers for ambient aerosol measurements. Atmos. Environ. 34, 139–149.

20. Vana, M., Hõrrak, U. and Tamm, E. (2000) Comparative study of the ultrafine aerosol particle and intermediate air ion concentration bursts in the atmosphere. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S176–S177.

21. Vana, M., Jennings, S.G., Kleefeld, C., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1999) Development of the atmospheric aerosol size spectrum during low tide in the clean marine coastal environment. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S175–S176.

22. Vana, M. and Tamm, E. (1998) Study of the aerosol size spectrum transformation by synchronized monitoring of atmospheric aerosol. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S205–S206.

23. Vana, M. and Tamm, E. (1999) About the study of the propagation of particulate matter by synchronized monitoring of atmospheric aerosols. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S223–S224.

24. Vana, M., Tamm, E. and Viil, M. (1999) Experimental study of the air pollution transport by synchronised monitoring of atmospheric aerosols. Atmos. Environ. 33, 4615–4628.



 
 

Appendix 5

CV – Hanno Ohvril


 
 

Name: Hanno Ohvril.

Birth place and date: Tallinn, Estonia, 20 May, 1946.

Education and degrees:

Diploma, University of Tartu 1969,

Cand. Sci., Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow 1977

Professional experience:
1969-1980 researcher, Institute of Astrophysics and Atmospheric Physics, Est. Acad. Sc.

1984-1985 Chairman of the Trade Union of Workers of Education in Tartu.

1985- Senior Lecturer, Docent, Deputy Head, Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Tartu.

Teaching experience:
environmental and medical physics, atmospheric and marine physics, atmospheric optics.
Memberships:

1997- 1999 The Town Council of Tartu

member of the Social Comission of the Tartu Town Council, 1999-

Supervising of dissertations

Tiit Kutser PhD 1997, Margus Arak MS 1995, Oleg Okulov MS 1996,

Anu Reinart MS 1995, Laur Mägi MS 1996.
 
 

Conferences, seminars, and workshops:

2nd International Conference on Climate and Water. Espoo, Finland, 17–20 Aug., 1998. (500 participants). Oral presentation.

IRS 2000, Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, International Radiation Symposium, July 24–29, 2000, St.-Petersburg. Poster presentation.
 
 
 
 

Scientific contribution and expertise:

1967–1980 studying stochastic structure of cloud and solar radiation fields
1978, Aug.–Oct. Expedition JASIN (Joint Air-Sea Interaction) on the North Atlantic, R/V "Academician Vernadski" (Acad. Sci. Ukraine), head of the Estonian team
1987–1990 solar radiation and meteorological measurements from aboard of the R/V

"Arnold Veimer", head of the meteorological team

1987–2001 elaboration and improvement of methods for the calculation of characteristics of atmospheric transparency and turbidity from measurements of broad band direct solar beam
1993–1996 studying solar radiaton regime of Estonian lakes
1993–2001 studying temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric transparency, studying volcanic influence on atmospheric transparency and climate
2000–2001 studying variability of precipitable water in Estonia and its impact on direct solar radiation and atmospheric transparency

1985 – 2001 teaching environmental and medical physics at the University of Tartu
 
 
 
 

Publications:

Refereed scientific papers published during last five years 1996–2000 are listed below.

1. Alados-Arboledas, L., Olmo, F.J., Ohvril, H.A., Teral, H., Arak, M. and Teral, K. (1997) Evolution of solar radiation effects of Mount Pinatubo at ground level. Tellus 49B, 190–198.

2. Heikinheimo, M., Ohvril, H., Venälainen, A., Skartveit, A., Olseth, J.A., Laine, V., Teral, H., Arak, M. and Teral, K. (1996) Recent variations of atmospheric turbidity at selected sites in Finland, Estonia and Norway as revealed by surface solar radiation measurements. Geophysica 32, 195–216.

3. Ohvril, H., Okulov, O. and Jaagus, J. (1998) Atmospheric transparency in Estonia during last 60 years. In Proc. of the Second International Conference on Climate and water, Espoo, Finland, 17-20 Aug. 1998, 2, pp. 682–690.

4. Ohvril, H., Okulov, O., Teral, H. and Teral, K. (1999) The atmospheric integral transparency coefficient and the Forbes effect. Solar Energy 66, 305–317.

5. Olmo, F.J., Tovar, J., Alados-Arboledas, L., Okulov, O. and Ohvril, H.O. (1999) A comparison of ground level solar radiative effects of recent volcanic eruptions. Atmos. Environ. 33, 4589–4596.


Appendix 6
CV – Jaan Salm

 
 

Name: Jaan Salm.

Birth place and date: Kehtna, Estonia, 8 October 1937.

Education and degrees:

Diploma, University of Tartu 1960,

Cand. Sci., University of Vilnius 1970,

Professional experience:
1958-1960 Technical Assistant, Department of Physics, University of Tartu

1960-1964 Laboratory Assistant, Department of Physics, University of Tartu

1964-1964, 1966-1967 Senior Engineer, Air Ionization and Electroaerosol Laboratory, University of Tartu

1968-1969 Junior Scientist, Air Ionization and Electroaerosol Laboratory, University of Tartu

1969-1982 Senior Lecturer, Department of Physics, University of Tartu

1982-1985 Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, University of Tartu

1984-1984 Visiting Scientist, Paul Sabatier’ University, Toulouse

1985-1987 Senior Scientist, Air Electricity Laboratory, University of Tartu

1987-1992 Leading Scientist, Air Electricity Laboratory, University of Tartu

1992-1993 Senior Scientist, Air Electricity Laboratory, University of Tartu

1993- Senior Scientist, Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Tartu

Memberships:

Society of Atmospheric Electricity of Japan

Ph.D and MS degrees under supervision:
A.Luts Ph.D. 1995,

H. Iher MS 1994.

Participation in scientific conferences: 10th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity; Osaka, Japan; June 10–14, 1996.

European Aerosol Conference; Germany, Hamburg; September 15–19, 1997.

7th European Symposium Particle Charact erization; Nürnberg, Germany; March 10–12, 1998.

11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE99); Guntersville, USA; June 7–11, 1999.

European Aerosol Conference 1999; Prague, Czech Republic; September 6-10, 1999.

Aerosols and Health; Karlsruhe, Germany; June 28–29, 2000.

European Aerosol Conference; Dublin, Ireland; September 03–08, 2000.

Publications:

Refereed scientific papers published during last five years 1996–2000 are listed below.

1. Aalto, P., Hämeri, K., Becker, E., Weber, R., Salm, J., Mäkelä, J.M., Hoell, C., O'Dowd, C.D., Karlsson, H., Hansson, H.-C., Väkevä, M., Koponen, I., Buzorius, G. and Kulmala, M. (2000) Aerosol number and size distribution measurements during BIOFOR. Report Series in Aerosol Science 33–41.

2. Hämeri, K., Mäkelä, J.M., Aalto, P.P., Pirjola, L., Väkevä, M., Koponen, I.K., Buzorius, G., Keronen, P., Rannik, Ü., Vesala, T., Laakso, L., Seidl, W., Forkel, R., Hoffman, T., Spanke, J., Nilsson, E.D., Jansson, R., Hansson, H.-C., O'Dowd, C., Becker, E., Paatero, J., Teinilä, K., Hillamo, R., Viisanen, Y., Bigg, K., Swietlicki, E., Laaksonen, A., Salm, J. and Kulmala, M. (2000) Biogenic aerosol formation in the Boreal Forest. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S598–S599.

3. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric Research 46, 233–242.

4. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Study of covariations of aerosol and air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse, Estonia. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S849–S850.

5. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1996) Derivation of the size spectrum of aerosol particles from a mobility spectrum. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by M. Kulmala and P.E., Wagner, Pergamon, pp. 562–565.

6. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Method of calculation of the size spectrum of aerosol particles according to their mobility spectrum. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S223–S224.

7. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Outbursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air. In Proceedings 10th Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, Osaka, pp. 76–79.

8. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1996) Statistical characterization of air ion spectra at Tahkuse Observatory 1993-1994. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Atmos. Electr., Osaka, pp. 72–75.

9. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1998) Bursts of intermediate ions in atmospheric air. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 103, 13909–13915.

10. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (2000) Statistical characterization of air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse Observatory: Classification of air ions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmospheres 105, 9291–9302.

11. Hõrrak, U., Salm, J. and Tammet, H. (1999) Classification of natural air ions near the ground. In 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, edited by Christian, H.J., NASA, MSFC, Alabama, pp. 618–621.

12. Mäkelä, J.M. and Salm, J. (2000) Small air ion concentration measurements in connection with ultrafine particle formation observed at a Boreal forest. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S940–S941.

13. Mirme, A. and Salm, J. (1999) Concurrent study of aerosol particle size distribution and of air ions in urban air. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S387–S388.

14. Mirme, A. and Salm, J. (2000) A study of ambient aerosols and air ions in winter season. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S702–S703.

15. Salm, J. (1997) Mobility shift in a differential mobility analyser due to diffusion. J. Aerosol Sci. 28, S269–S270.

16. Salm, J. (1999) The effect of turbulent diffusion in differential mobility analyzers. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S381–S382.

17. Salm, J. (2000) Diffusion distortions in a Differential Mobility Analyzer: The shape of apparent mobility spectrum. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 602–612.

18. Salm, J. and Tamm, E. (2000) Air ion measurements in Hyytiälä during BIOFOR3. Report Series in Aerosol Science 87–90.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Appendix 7

CV – Aadu Mirme


 
 

Name: Aadu Mirme.

Birth place and date: Halinga, Estonia, 12 September 1945.

Education and degrees:

Diploma, University of Sant Petersburg, Russia 1970,

Ph.D., University of Tartu 1994.

Professional experience:
1970-1973 Researcher, Air Electricty Laboratory, University of Tartu

1973-1983 Senior Scientist, Air Electricty Laboratory, University of Tartu

1983-1992 Head of Aerosol Group, Air Electricity Laboratory, University of Tartu

1992- Researcher, Department of Environmental Physics, University of Tartu

Ph.D and MS degrees under supervision:
J. Tamm MS 1994

M. Vallius (University of Kuopio, Finland) MS 1997.

Participation in conferences:

The 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 – 30 August 1996.

The 5th International Aerosol Conference, Edinburgh, UK, 14 – 18 September 1998.

NOSA and the VII Finnish National Aerosol Symposium, Helsinki, 12 – 13 November 1998.

The 11th internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung, Duisburg, Germany, 16 – 18 Marts 1999.

Air Quality in Europe: Challenges for the 2000s, Venice 19 - 21 May 1999

European Aerosol Conference, Prague, 6 – 10 September 1999.

Publications:

Refereed scientific papers published during last five years 1996–2000 are listed below.

1. Fischer, M., Jennings, G., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Microphysical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol depending on air mass origin. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S187–S188.

2. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Air ion measurements as a source of information about atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric Research 46, 233–242.

3. Hõrrak, U., Mirme.A, Salm, J., Tamm, E. and Tammet, H. (1998) Study of covariations of aerosol and air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse, Estonia. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S849–S850.

4. Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Examining the relationship between aerosol size distribution and atmospheric visibility in an urban area. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S661–S662.

5. Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Raunemaa, T. (1996) Statistical characteristics of aerosol in Baltic Sea region. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19319–19327.

6. Kikas, Ü., Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Raunemaa, T. (1997) Bimodality of aerosol size distribution in the 0.06 - 1.0 µm diameter range observed during haze episodes. In Proc. Conf. Visual Air Quality, Aerosols, and Global Radiation Balance, Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., American Geophysical Union, Pittsburgh, pp. 507–515.

7. Laan, M. and Mirme, A. (2000) Ch. 8. Aerosol and corona discharges. In Electrical discharges for environmental purposes: fundamental and applications, Nova Science Publisher Inc., pp. 193–220.

8. Mirme, A., Kikas, Ü. and Tamm, E. (1999) The receptor-oriented study of aerosol residence times. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S531–S532.

9. Mirme, A., Minkkinen, P. and Ruuskanen, J. (1996) Behaviour of urban aerosol, black carbon and gaseous pollutants in urban air: exploratory principal component analysis. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by Kulmala, M. and Wagner, P.E., Pergamon, pp. 423–426.

10. Mirme, A., Paris, P., Kikas, Ü., Laan, M. and Tamm, E. (1999) Characterisation of corona aerosol using an Electrical Aerosol Spectrometer. In Electret filters, production and properties. Proceedings of International Workshop on Electret Filters, Production and Properties, Warsaw, Poland, January 29 and 30, 1999, edited by Stenhouse, J.I.T., Gradon, L. and Marijnissen, J.C.M., Delft University Press, pp. 151–160.

11. Mirme, A. and Ruuskanen, J. (1996) Comparison of aerosol measurements in urban environment. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, S23–S24.

12. Mirme, A. and Salm, J. (1999) Concurrent study of aerosol particle size distribution and of air ions in urban air. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S387–S388.

13. Mirme, A. and Salm, J. (2000) A study of ambient aerosols and air ions in winter season. J. Aerosol Sci. 31, S702–S703.

14. Mirme, A., Tamm, E. and Sievert, U. (1999) Performance of an optical and an ionisation smoke detector compared to a wide range aerosol spectrometer. In AUBE ’99. 11. Internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung. Proceedings, Duisburg, pp. 380–391.

15. Mirme, A., Tammet, H. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometry for environmental aerosol monitoring. Report Series in Aerosol Science. Helsinki 9–14.

16. Paris, P., Laan, M., Mirme, A. and van Veldhuizen, E.M. (1996) Corona discharge as generator of aerosol. Int. Symp. On High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry, Sept. 2-4, 1996, Mlovy, Czech Republic, pp. 185–189.

17. Paris, P., Mirme, A. and Laan, M. (1998) Study of corona discharge aerosol with an electrical aerosol spectrometer. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S845–S846.

18. Pekkanen, J., Timonen, K.L., Ruuskanen, J., Reponen, A. and Mirme, A. (1997) Effects of ultrafine and fine particles in urban air on peak expiratory flow among children with asthmatic symptoms. J. Environ. Research 74, 24–33.

19. Raunemaa, T., Kuuspalo, K., Ålander, T., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1996) Age estimation of atmospheric black carbon over Finland from combined aerosol size distribution and radon progeny measurements. J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 455–465.

20. Reponen, A., Ruuskanen, J., Mirme, A., Pärjälä, E., Hoek, G., Roemer, W., Hosiokangas, J., Pekkanen, J. and Jantunen, M. (1996) Comparison of five methods for measuring particulate matter concentrations in cold winter climate. Atmos. Environ. 30, 3873–3879.

21. Ruuskanen, J., Parkkinen, J., Mirme, A. and Liikanen, P. (1996) Urban airborne pollutant analysis by a neural network. In Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, edited by Kulmala, M. and Wagner, P.E., Pergamon, pp. 639–642.

22. Tamm, E., Mirme, A., Sievert, U. and Franken, D. (1999) Aerosol particle concentration and size distribution measurements of test-fires as a background for fire detector modeling. In AUBE ’99. 11. Internationale Konferenz über automatische Brandentdeckung. Proceedings, Duisburg, pp. 150–159.

23. Tammet, H., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1998) Electrical aerosol spectrometer of Tartu University. J. Aerosol Sci. 29, S427–S428.

24. Tiittanen, P., Timonen, K.L., Ruuskanen, J., Mirme, A. and Pekkanen, J. (1999) Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children. European Respiratory Journal 13, 266–273.

25. Tuch, Th., Mirme, A., Tamm, E., Heinrich, J., Heyder, J., Brand, P., Roth, Ch., Wichmann, H.E., Pekkanen, J. and Kreyling, W.G. (2000) Comparison of two particle-size spectrometers for ambient aerosol measurements. Atmos. Environ. 34, 139–149.

26. Vana, M., Jennings, S.G., Kleefeld, C., Mirme, A. and Tamm, E. (1999) Development of the atmospheric aerosol size spectrum during low tide in the clean marine coastal environment. J. Aerosol Sci. 30, S175–S176.

27. Viskari, E.-L., Surakka, J., Pasanen, P., Mirme, A., Kössi, S., Ruuskanen, J. and Holopainen, J.K. (2000) Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions - I plant-insect interactions. Environmental Pollution 107, 89–98.